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系統識別號 U0002-0406201221092200
中文論文名稱 應用於無線視覺感測網路中具K-Strong防線覆蓋之監控及追蹤機制
英文論文名稱 Efficient Monitoring and Target-Tracking Mechanism with K-Strong Barrier Coverage in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 蔡政宏
研究生英文姓名 Cheng-Hung Tsai
學號 699410147
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-05-22
論文頁數 133頁
口試委員 指導教授-顏淑惠
委員-廖弘源
委員-陳振炎
委員-徐嘉連
委員-王英宏
委員-顏淑惠
中文關鍵字 無線視覺感測網路  入侵者  K-Strong Barrier Coverage  睡眠機制  監控追蹤 
英文關鍵字 Wireless Visual Sensor Networks  Intruder  K-Strong Coverage  Sleeping Control  Monitoring and Target-Tracking 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 無線視覺感測網路(Wireless Visual Sensor Networks,WVSNs)是由分散的視覺感測節點所構成。相較於傳統的無線感測網路(Wireless Sensor Networks,WSNs)而言,無線視覺感測網路(Wireless Visual Sensor Networks,WVSNs)不僅能達到監控之功用,並且能進一步取得影像資訊,如此一來將更能有效地立即掌控環境場景之現況。而近年來WVSNs的研究議題中,線覆蓋(barrier coverage)應用於邊界防線與偵測入侵者已受到許多學者們的廣泛探討,也由於WVSNs所收集的資料為影像資訊,因此使用過多的視覺感測節點佈建防線,將造成網路存活時間的減少與收集過多不必要之影像,且對於節點影像資訊回傳將會造成頻寬負載的增加,若取得過多重覆影像則會造成後端影像處理之困難度。
因此,如何有效延長網路存活時間與較少數量的視覺感測節點來佈建防線,已成為無線視覺感測網路中一項非常重要之議題。此外,過往針對無線視覺感測網路下之barrier研究,並未考慮到網路存活時間與如何有效追蹤監控入侵者其影像資訊並對於每一片段影像應具有一定之品質(影像監控厚度),如此一來將難以辨視其所收集到的影像。因此,本研究將加入睡眠機制並結合入侵者追蹤機制與影像厚度之考量,藉此提供已較佳之監控品質(Quality of Monitor, QoM)。也就是說,本研究將針對無線視覺感測網路中之防線議題做一探討,我們將提出以集中式的防線建構演算法結合睡眠機制達到延長整體網路存活時間,並藉由本研究所提出之入侵者監控追縱機制其有效達到監控追蹤入侵者之影像資訊,並透過較少數量之視覺感測節點來佈建具備有一定影像監控厚度之K-Strong Barrier Coverage。
英文摘要 The wireless visual sensor networks (WVSNs) are composed of distributed visual sensor nodes. The WVSNs can not only provide monitoring functions like wireless sensor networks but also capture real-time image of the monitoring environment. Among the issues of WVSNs, barrier coverage has been widely discussed by researchers in recent years. However, networks lifetime decreasing and redundant visual collecting will be caused by the forming barrier with too many visual sensor nodes. Furthermore, the breadth of coverage is the most important factor of the Quality of Monitor to provide the well image information. We proposed an efficiently target tracking and monitoring with better Quality of Monitor (QoM) by involving the sleeping control mechanism and the guaranteed breadth of coverage. In this dissertation, we consider a centralized K-strong barrier coverage construction mechanism with sleeping control mechanism to prolong the network lifetime. Otherwise, the image information of intruder is efficiently captured by proposed monitoring and tracking mechanism with the least visual sensor nodes.
論文目次 目 錄
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 5
1.3 研究方法 7
1.4 論文架構 8
Chapter 2 Related Work 9
2.1 覆蓋議題 9
2.1.1 無線感測網路 11
2.1.2 無線視覺感測網路 14
2.2 三角定位法 17
2.3 目標物追蹤 19
2.3.1 同步喚醒 20
2.3.2 非同步喚醒 23
Chapter 3 Preliminary 33
3.1 網路架構與名稱定義 33
3.2 相關定義 34
3.3 相關假設 49
3.4 網路環境設定 50
Chapter 4 Efficient Monitoring and Target-Tracking Mechanism with K-Strong Barrier Coverage in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks 53
4.1 網路網格化建構階段(Griding Phase) 56
4.2 建構K-Strong防線覆蓋 63
4.3 入侵者監控階段 68
4.3.1 睡眠機制 69
4.3.2 入侵者監控追蹤機制 73
Chapter 5 Simulation Result 89
5.1 模擬環境 90
5.2 感測器建構防線之實驗模擬 91
5.3 感測器移動距離之實驗模擬 93
5.4 入侵者追蹤遺失率之實驗模擬 95
5.5 入侵者追蹤喚醒的感測器節點數量之實驗模擬 98
Chapter 6 Conclusion 101
參考文獻 103
附錄一 中文投稿論文 109
附錄二 英文論文 120

圖目錄
圖1.1 Crossing Paths V.S Non-Crossing Path 3
圖1.2 Weak Barrier V.S Strong Barrier 4
圖1.3 邊界覆蓋示意圖 6
圖2.1 覆蓋示意圖 10
圖2.2 2-barrier coverage示意圖 12
圖2.3 2-barrier coverage防禦線示意圖 13
圖2.4 已知距離的三角定位法 17
圖2.5 絕對角度的三角定位法 18
圖2.6 週期式與隨機式喚醒示意圖 21
圖2.7 PES Protocol示意圖 24
圖2.8 EST Protocol示意圖 26
圖2.9 CT Protocol示意圖 28
圖2.10 CCT Protocol示意圖 30
圖3.1 無線視覺感測器網路假設圖 34
圖3.2 感測區域示意圖 36
圖3.3 感測連結示意圖 37
圖3.4 防衛線示意圖 39
圖3.5 角色分佈示意圖 40
圖3.6 Monitoring Angle示意圖 41
圖3.7 Visual node Rotate Angle示意圖 43
圖3.8 視覺感測器節點偵測入侵者影像 示意圖 46
圖3.9 無線感測器網路佈建示意圖 50
圖4.1 系統架構流程圖 54
圖4.2 網格化初始階段 56
圖4.3 網路網格化建構流程圖 58
圖4.4 CSVMA場景圖 59
圖4.5 CRBCA場景圖 64
圖4.6 建構K-Strong防線覆蓋流程圖 65
圖4.7 睡眠機制流程圖 70
圖4.8 睡眠機制場景圖(a) 72
圖4.8 睡眠機制−奇數列Wake up &偶數列sleep (b) 72
圖4.8 睡眠機制−偶數列Wake up &奇數列sleep (c) 73
圖4.9 入侵者監控追蹤機制流程圖 75
圖4.10 入侵者監控追蹤機制場景圖(a) 79
圖4.10 入侵者監控追蹤機制場景圖(b) 80
圖4.10 入侵者監控追蹤機制場景圖(c) 81
圖4.10 入侵者監控追蹤機制場景圖(d) 81
圖4.10 入侵者監控追蹤機制場景圖(e) 82
圖4.11 慣性監控追蹤機制場景圖(a) 85
圖4.11 慣性監控追蹤機制場景圖(b) 85
圖4.12 全區域監控機制場景圖(a) 88
圖4.12 全區監控機制場景圖(b) 88
圖5.1 感測器節點數量之比較 91
圖5.2 感測器節點移動總距離之比較 93
圖5.3 入侵者追蹤遺失率之比較 95
圖5.4 平均喚醒感測器節點數量 98

表目錄
表一:Mnl_mes格式表 57
表二:Virtual Migration Table (VMT) (a) 60
表二:Virtual Migration Table (VMT) (b) 61
表三:row_mes格式表 66
表四:angle_mes格式表 67
表五:sle_mes格式表 69
表六:waup_mes格式表 76
表七:track_mes格式表 77
表八:tracking table 78
表九:inertia_mes格式表 84
表十:alw_mes格式表 87
表十一:參數設定 90

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