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中文論文名稱 圖哈切夫斯基與蘇聯文武關係之研究─兼論俄式大縱深作戰
英文論文名稱 Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky and Soviet civil-military relations-Extend Study on Soviet Deep Battle
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 103
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生中文姓名 朱奕
研究生英文姓名 I Chu
學號 601330227
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2015-01-14
論文頁數 112頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪陸訓
委員-翁明賢
委員-施正權
中文關鍵字 圖哈切夫斯基  文武關係  蘇聯 
英文關鍵字 Tukhachevsky  Soviet Party-Military relations  USSR 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 圖哈切夫斯基元帥是蘇聯軍事思想大家,其所完善的「俄式大縱深作戰」是蘇聯作戰體系的主流,同時也是從1930年代到蘇聯解體前的最先進作戰理論之一。然而西方世界的文武關係研究者對於這位因為1937年史達林發動大整肅而死亡的軍事思想家並沒有進行充分的研究,而是對於1950年代同樣因政爭而受害的朱可夫元帥的研究著墨甚深,充分的表現了西方世界對蘇聯文武關係研究的偏好。
本文主要探討圖哈切夫斯基元帥遇害的「軍事法西斯軍事陰謀」案及其中之蘇聯文武關係的同時,也探討「俄式大縱深作戰」及其影響。
本研究歸納出以下幾點:
首先,「軍事法西斯陰謀」案是黨軍衝突,印證了波爾穆特的觀點,是史達林藉由其在蘇聯紅軍中的黨羽整肅圖哈切夫斯基等軍官,同時應證了學者考科維茨的蘇聯文武關係之「週期性」,同時此案亦可印證某些蘇聯文武關係理論。
第二,史達林的掌權是藉由其總書記之職,首先控制黨,以黨正統打擊政敵,同時依賴其職,在所需的場合安插親信及可為己用之人,佔據黨與政府中的關鍵職位以及國安機構,並利用各種場合使用國安機構整肅政敵,建立不同於列寧式黨內民主的獨裁統治。
第三,史達林可能未曾想要消滅圖哈切夫斯基等人所建立的俄式大縱深作戰理論,該理論可以說是當時最先進的理論之一,不同於閃電戰理論,該理論強調癱瘓而非圍殲、注重速度、規模、突然性,並且具有連續性。俄式大縱深作戰理論在圖哈切夫斯基等人被整肅之後研究被嚴重延宕,以至於蘇聯紅軍得在第二次世界大戰的東線戰場上重新摸索改良。最終成為美國John Powell少校所認為的,美國及其西歐北約盟國所無法抵擋的作戰方式。
英文摘要 The Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky was a great mind of soviet military thought, the “Soviet Deep Battle”, which he had perfected had been the mainstream of soviet military operation thought, as well as one of the most sophisticated operational theories from the 1930s to the end of the cold war. But western studies of soviet civil- military relations haven’t shed much light on the marshal’s death, but instead focused on the misfortune of another Marshal of the Soviet Union, Georgy Zhukov, revealing the preference of western soviet civil-military study.
This thesis discusses the “Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization”- the case which saw the murder of Tukhachevsky, and the civil-military relations of the incident, as well as the operational theory “Soviet Deep Battle” and its influence.
The findings are as below:
First, the “Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization” is an incident of party-military conflict, which corroborates the view of Amos Perlmutter, as well as the cyclical pattern of the soviet civil-military relations and other theories of Soviet civil-military relations.
Secondly, Stalin made his way to power using his position as chief secretary to take over the party, then using the orthodoxy of the party to attack his enemies. his position also allowed him to place his own men as well as men he may use as instruments onto strategic positions within the party, the soviet government and the nation’s security service, then taking every possible occasion to suppress his enemies using the nation’s security service now in his pocket, forging his dictatorship over the nation, which was very differs from Lenin’s reign of “Democracy within the party”.
Lastly, Stalin himself might not have desired the destruction of the “Soviet Deep Battle” concept. The concept was the most modern theory at the time, stressing paralyzing instead of annihilation, emphasizing speed, scale, surprise, and bears continuity. The purge of Tukhachevsky and his colleagues severely slowed the theory’s development. Yet the second world war provide the soviets with ample experience to improve the theory, making it the operational method that Major John S Powell of the US Armed forces believed to be unstoppable for the NATO forces in Europe.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
壹、研究動機與目的 1
貳、研究方法 2
參、研究範圍與限制 3
肆、研究架構 4
伍、文獻回顧 5
第二章 蘇聯文武關係的理論與演變概況 9
第一節 蘇聯文武關係理論 9
第二節 軍事專業理論 18
第三節 蘇聯文武關係演變 21
小結……… 26
第三章 圖哈切夫斯基的時代背景與生平 28
第一節 1890年代至1920年的俄國 28
第二節 1920年以後的蘇聯 34
第三節 對外關係與德蘇合作 36
第四節 圖哈切夫斯基生平 43
第五節 圖哈切夫斯基與俄式大縱深作戰 47
小結……… 56
第四章 史達林的掌權與對圖哈切夫斯基的整肅 59
第一節 史達林掌權的手段 59
第二節 史達林的奪權鬥爭與大整肅 60
第三節 對圖哈切夫斯基的整肅 73
第四節 後史達林時代的平反 89
小結………… 91
第五章 圖哈切夫斯基之死與史達林大整肅對蘇聯紅軍的影響 94
第一節 對蘇軍戰力的影響 94
第二節 對蘇共控制蘇軍的影響 96
第三節 對蘇聯文武關係的影響─理論與觀點的檢視 100
小結……… 103
第六章 結論 104
壹、研究總結 104
貳、研究建議 106
參考資料…… 108
圖目錄
圖 1 在法國戰場上的帝俄士兵 31
圖 2 一位「軍事專家」:仍舊穿著帝俄軍服,但是卸下了帽章,並在武裝帶上別上紅星。 33
圖 3 圖哈切夫斯基元帥 43
圖 4 時任紅軍副總參謀長特里安達菲洛夫 48
圖 5 正在受審的圖哈切夫斯基 79
圖 6「軍事法西斯陰謀案」人物關係圖 91
表目錄
表 1 研究架構 4
表 2 蘇共與蘇聯紅軍對軍人角色期望之比較 12
表 3 考科維茨的「週期性」 13
表 4 蘇聯紅軍參與政治之程度─事件性質關係表 17
表 5「軍事法西斯陰謀案」人物關係圖 93

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