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系統識別號 U0002-0402201316363600
中文論文名稱 美國境內墨西哥移民文化融合之探討
英文論文名稱 The Research of Cultural Blend of Mexican Immigrants in United States
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 沈姵均
研究生英文姓名 Pei-Chun Shen
學號 698310165
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-01-07
論文頁數 121頁
口試委員 指導教授-王秀琦
委員-陳小雀
委員-向駿
中文關鍵字 墨西哥移民  墨裔美國人  同化  多元化  墨西哥化 
英文關鍵字 Mexican Immigrant  Mexican American  Assimilation  Cultural Pluralism  Multiculturalism  Mexicanization 
學科別分類
中文摘要 美國是個移民者的社會,堪稱目前世界上最重要的移民接收國,而來自不同國家的外來移民,讓美國社會呈現了多彩多姿的文化特性。在眾多拉美裔移民當中,墨西哥移民及其在美國出生的後代以將近3,300萬之人數,成為當前美國最大的單一移民群體,其文化影響力可見一斑,在美國的發展情形備受關注。

美墨戰爭為墨西哥人移民美國的歷史揭開了序幕,並隨著時間的演進逐漸形成持續不斷的移民浪潮。由於墨西哥和美國特殊之地緣關係,加上墨裔移民在美國人數的迅速增長與分布相對集中,以及與美國本地人民之間無論在思想價值觀、社經發展基礎和語言方面等諸多差異,同時還可能遭受主流社會的偏見歧視等多方面因素相互影響下,致使墨西哥移民在同化的表現上往往落後於其他國家的移民群體,呈現發展緩慢的趨勢。

本論文探討墨西哥移民在美國社會之社經及文化的發展情形,論述墨裔移民所帶來的社會文化方面之影響與改變。首先談及墨西哥移民在美國發展的歷史背景與過程,另外也研究移民們遷移至美國的主要原因與本身所存在之特殊性,並了解墨裔移民目前於美國發展之社會與經濟概況。在同化問題上,除了討論當前墨西哥移民同化於美國的發展狀況外,也探究形成墨裔移民同化困難之各項因素。然而,在兩國文化的動態交流與相互融合下,墨西哥移民已為美國文化帶來了新風貌,今日的墨裔移民實際上不只被美國同化,同時也在過程中「同化」了美國。墨西哥移民在美國社會之不同方面所產生的墨西哥化現象,亦為本研究其中之重要議題。
英文摘要 The United States, a society built up by immigrants, is the most important immigrant-receiving country in the world. The mainstream society of America shows cultural diversity through those immigrants from different countries. However, nearly 33 million population of Mexican immigrants and their America-born descendants among Hispanic immigrants, has become the largest ethnic immigrant group in the United States. It’s evident to see the cultural influence of Mexican immigrants nowadays, so does the developing condition in the United States always attracts many attentions.

The history of Mexican people immigrated to the United States began after the Mexican–American War, and immigration waves become continuous as time goes by. Due to the particular geography location between Mexico and the United States, the rapid growth with the number of Mexican immigrants and their centralized distribution trend, as well as those distinct discrepancies in the aspect of ideological values, basic socio-economic development and language with natives. In addition, the prejudice and discrimination in mainstream society sometimes are also inevitable. As the result, the process of assimilation of Mexican immigrants has always grown slowly and got behind other ethnic immigrant groups, after interacting with various factors above.

This thesis dedicates on the socio-economic and cultural development of Mexican immigrants in America society, and focuses on the cultural influences and changes from this immigrant group. The content of the thesis includes the historical background and process of Mexican immigrants in the United States. Besides, those principal reasons for immigrate and other particularities exist by Mexican immigrants themselves. Also, it refers to the development of social and economic profile currently of these immigrants in the United States. In the issue of assimilation, the thesis disserts about the assimilation development of Mexican immigrants and their descendants, those components impact the assimilation difficulty to the mainstream society are also mentioned. During the dynamic cultural exchange and cultural blend between Mexico and the United States, there has already brought a brand-new appearance for the America culture from Mexican immigrants. Not only these Mexican immigrants are assimilated by the society of United States, in the meantime, they also “assimilate” the United States on the way. The different aspects of Mexicanization emerge from Mexican immigrants in the society are the main issues of the study as well.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法、範圍與限制 4
第三節 相關理論與名詞解釋 6
第二章 墨西哥裔移民美國之背景分析 13
第一節 墨裔移民美國之歷史背景與過程 13
第二節 墨裔移民美國之主要原因與特殊性 26
第三章 當前美國的墨西哥移民之發展概況 37
第一節 美國墨西哥移民之社會情況 37
第二節 美國墨西哥移民之經濟情況 47
第四章 墨西哥移民在美國之同化發展 57
第一節 對美國社會之認同與同化情形 57
第二節 影響墨西哥移民認同與同化之因素 70
第五章 墨西哥移民對美國之社會影響 79
第一節 美墨文化的碰撞 80
第二節 墨西哥化在美國大眾文化之體現 85
第三節 墨裔移民同化發展之相關探討 96
第六章 結論 103
參考文獻 109

圖目錄
圖2-1:非法移民遭逮捕數量......................................................................................20
圖2-2:1850-2011年在美國的墨西哥出生人口(百萬).............................................25
圖2-3:2010年美國拉美裔人口之主要來源國(%)..................................................33
圖3-1:2000年至2011年 在美國的墨西哥出生人口狀態(百萬)............................42
圖3-2:1980年至2010年 墨西哥裔美國人人口增長數量(百萬)............................43
圖4-1:1995-2005年 所有合法移民與墨西哥移民歸化入籍百分比....................69
圖5-1:美墨邊境上之所有相鄰城市..........................................................................83

表目錄
表2-1:2010年境外出生人口之來源國......................................................................32
表3-1:2010年墨西哥裔人口分布最多的州(以千計算)..........................................38
表3-2:非法移民來源國與人口數量-2000年1月暨2005—2010年........................40
表3-3:2006年16歲以上在職勞動力按性別與來源地之職業分布比例...................49
表3-4:墨西哥移民與美國當地人的各行業分佈(%)..............................................50
表5-1:西班牙式英語詞彙之發展來源.......................................................................87

參考文獻 一、中文資料
(一)專書
吳前進,《美國華僑、華人文化變遷論》,上海:上海社會科學院出版社,1998年10月,182頁。

張秀雄主編,《教育大辭書(三)》,台北:文景出版社,2000年。

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Donald Light, Jr. and Suzanne Keller著,Sociology,林義男譯,《社會學》,台北:巨流圖書公司,1992年。

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Peter Stalker著,The No-Nonsense Guide To International Migration,蔡繼光譯,《國際遷徙與移民-解讀「離國出走」》,台北:書林出版有限公司,2002年12月,184頁。

Samuel Huntington著,Who Are We: The Challenges to America’s National Identity,高德源、劉純佑、石吉雄譯,《誰是美國人-族群融合的問題與國家認同的危機》,台北:左岸文化,2008年,384頁。

Thomas E. Skidmore and Peter H. Smith著,Modern Latin America,江時學譯,《現代拉丁美洲》,北京:世界知識出版社,1994年,510頁。

(二)期刊
王少芳,〈從「不讓一個孩子掉隊」看美國雙語教育的複雜性及政治性因素對其的影響〉,《科教縱橫》,第12期,2010年,頁222-223。

王寅,〈愛爾蘭移民在美國社會的崛起與融合〉,《世界民族》,第4期,2003年,頁38-48。

王曉德,〈天主教倫理與拉丁美洲不發達的文化根源—兼與新教倫理對美國發展作用的比較〉,《拉丁美洲研究》,第28卷,第4期,2006年8月,頁34-42。

仇朝兵,〈一個被撕裂的美國社會?-評杭廷頓的《我們是誰?》〉,《美國研究》,第3期,2006年,頁124-134。

李博,〈有關美墨移民的幾個問題〉,《拉丁美洲研究》,第29卷,第1期,2007年2月,頁57-61。

吳坤暉,〈一九九八年美國加州地區廢除雙語教育之探討〉,《淡江人文社會學刊》,第6期,2000年,頁190-216。

周娟,〈多元同化當議〉,《基地期刊》,社科網社會學類第一期,2003年,頁1-6。

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姬虹,〈假如美國沒有了墨西哥裔人〉,《世界知識》,第18期,2004年,頁60-61。

張穎,〈墨西哥移民與墨美兩國國際勞工市場的發展〉,《拉丁美洲研究》,第6期,1999年,頁33-37。

楊丹華、華倩,〈墨西哥移民對美國國家安全的影響〉,《華中農業大學學報(社會科學版)》, 第1期,2007年1月,頁28-32。

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陳積敏,〈美國亞利桑那州移民法案評析〉,《國際論壇》,第12卷,第6期,2010年11月,頁71-76。

陳積敏,〈美國非法移民的現狀與基本特點〉,《國際資料信息》,第2期,2012年,頁1-7。

Pablo Vila著,Crossing Borders, Reinforcing Borders: Social Categories, Metaphors, and Narrative Identities on the U.S.-Mexico Frontier,黃紀蘇譯,〈在跨國環境中建構社會認同:墨–美邊境案例〉,《國際社會科學雜誌(中文版)》,第1期,2000年,頁77-89。

Peter Hakim著,郭存海譯,〈拉丁美洲:下任美國總統的議程〉,《拉丁美洲研究》,第30卷,第5期,2008年10月,頁66-72。

Tamar Diana Wilson著,趙延東譯,〈弱關係、強關係:墨西哥移民中的網絡原則〉,《思想戰線 Thinking》,第31卷,第1期,2005年,頁46-55。

(三)論文
宋鷗,《美國墨西哥移民問題研究》,吉林大學博士學位論文,2009年。

邱玉茹,《宜蘭國際童玩藝術節之多元文化藝術教育意義:以三所參與學校為例》,國立新竹師範學院美勞教育研究所,2004年。

徐勃毓,《美國墨西哥裔移民發展之研究》,淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士論文,2004年。

莊博智,《小布希政府對拉丁裔移民政策之研究:以古巴裔與墨西哥裔為例》,政治大學外交研究所碩士論文,2006年。

黃柯熹,《美國墨西哥裔移民同化困境之研究》,淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文,1998年。

黃逵玉,《多元文化主義的論辯與實踐-1970年後墨西哥裔移民的國家認同》,淡江大學美國研究所,2008年。

蔡佩樺,《美國多元文化下墨裔美人之研究-以奇卡諾運動為例》,淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所,2009年。

(四)網際網路資源
薛承泰、王安智,〈美國貧窮線簡介〉,《財團法人國家政策研究基金會》,2007/05/30,http://www.npf.org.tw/post/3/2408

《BBC中文網》,〈北美來鴻:美國流行聖母像〉, 2006/11/8,http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_4560000/newsid_4566700/4566758.stm

《BBC中文網》,〈最高法院部分推翻亞利桑那州移民法〉, 2012/06/25,http://www.bbc.co.uk/zhongwen/trad/world/2012/06/120625_arizona_immgration.shtml

《中央社》,〈亞利桑那州長簽署移民法奧巴馬嚴厲批評〉,2012/04/23,http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/10/4/24/n2886827.htm

《中國評論新聞網》,〈少數族裔快速增加,美國拉美裔人口突破五千萬〉, 2011/03/25,http://www.chinareviewnews.com/doc/1016/3/9/5/101639512.html?coluid=7&kindid=0&docid=101639512

《環球時報》,〈美語與西班牙語雜交:拉美移民造出「新語言」〉, 2002/06/11,http://big5.china.com.cn/chinese/WISI/158126.htm

《環球時報》,〈讓美國擔心的墨西哥:大量移民湧入美國拒絕同化〉, 2006/12/16,http://news.sina.com.cn/w/2006-12-16/000511802652.shtml

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(一)專書
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(二)期刊
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(三)論文
ACEVEDO, Juan C., A Cross-Cultural Study of Leisure Among Mexicans in the State of Guerrero, Mexico and Mexican Immigrants from Guerrero in the United States, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2009.

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(四)政府、研究機構出版品
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AYON, David R., “The Legal Side of Mexican Immigration”, Mexico Institute Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, June 2012, 20 pp.

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CAMAROTA, Steven A., “ Immigration From Mexico: Assessing the Impact on the United States”, Center for Immigration Studies, July 2001, 64 pp.

GOLDFARB, Charles B., “Spanish Language Media After the Univision-Hispanic Broadcasting Merger: Brief Overview”, Congressional Research Service, October 20, 2003, 6 pp.

GROGGER, Jeffrey, and Stephen J. Trejo, “Falling Behind or Moving Up? The Intergenerational Progress of Mexican Americans”, Public Policy Institute of California, 2002, 132 pp.

HANSON, Gordon H. et. al., “Immigration and the U.S. Economy: Labor-Market Impacts, Illegal Entry, and Policy Choices”, Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti, June 2001, 144 pp.

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