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中文論文名稱 與甘比亞河的對話(傳統現代化:藉竹構與生態觀光發現傳統建築新風貌)
英文論文名稱 Dialogue with the river Gambia (Modernity in Tradition: Exploring the new Vernacular Architecture by integrating the bamboo tectonic with ecotourism)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 卡睿塔
研究生英文姓名 KARANTA SONKO
學號 604365030
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-07-03
論文頁數 66頁
口試委員 指導教授-賴怡成
委員-周書賢
委員-顏亮平
中文關鍵字 生態旅遊  鄉土建築  竹構造  棲息地  數位構築 
英文關鍵字 Ecotourism  Vernacular Architecture  Bamboo tectonics  Habitat  digital fabrication 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 甘比亞是位在西非的一個小國,邊界緊鄰著甘比亞河與鄰國塞內加爾
分隔。有著多樣的地理條件,如濕地,森林廣布,美麗的海岸線,候
鳥遷徙路線等。此國家有豐富且獨特的生態資源,及美麗的生態觀光
景點。據統計,甘比亞約有540 種鳥類,大部分鳥類可見於沿海地區
有些則在內陸地區。
甘比亞河與甘比亞息息相關,兩者密不可分。 甘比亞河是主要的旅遊
景點,以貫穿全國中心而聞名。紅樹林遍布於下游河口,河流中段為
寬闊的蘆葦帶,而在水源清新的河岸兩旁則有綠樹成林。
而近年來,自然保護區、賞鳥以及生態觀光的興盛,加上該國擁有豐
富生態且充滿生機,從大草原到紅樹林和濕地,各種景觀和許多不同
的動物。充分的使甘比亞成為旅遊和度假的著名勝地。
為了將生態觀光與社區做結合,我們希望在甘比亞河岸附近設計一個
生態設施或鳥類觀測塔。 此建築不僅促使遊客前來觀光,同時增加居
民與遊客間的文化交流。考量現生態觀光與現有建築間的衝突及為棲
息地帶來的影響,本論文旨在研究及設計合適的建築:以竹子做主要
結構,3D 列印支架為輔,能DIY (do it yourself)的設計。
此論文主要以質性研究為基礎。首先,會在第二章以文獻探討做為概
述。本研究的主要論述著重於發展甘比亞河沿岸的生態觀光。研究目
的在於評估永續發展與經濟成長、社會公平和環境保護三者間的關
係。接著將透過研究及設計兩個部分,做出最終建築模型。並將研究
與設計做結合,把研究所蒐集到的資料實踐於設計中。
建築將位在離Banjul165 公里的地方。位在Kiang west 國家公園和
Boa bolong 濕地保護區之間。坐落在甘比亞河畔,受四周林地,眾多
鳥類,山豬和其他野生動物圍繞。
因不恰當的旅遊開發建設可能會破壞棲息地和景觀,消耗自然資源,
帶來汙染。 當地社區也需要更好,更健康的居住環境。 社區與遊客
之間未建立起關係,這已成為幾十年來普遍存在的社會,文化和經濟
問題。
而這個問題可通過可透過知識社區的共同結構來解決,發展永續建築
或現傳統建築的現代化及教育當地居民和旅遊業來達成。 例如能讓社
區居民參與建設過程,進而學習如何照顧及管理周圍環境。通過這種
方式,使環境的人類文化福祉可永續經營發展,且遊客可以一同參與
社區互動。
英文摘要 The Gambia is a small country in West Africa whose borders follow the Gambia River and carve
out a slice of neighboring Senegal. The country has a wide variety of geographical features such
as the wetlands, forest cover, beautiful coastline, and migratory routes for birds etc. The country
is rich and unique in ecological resources, with wonderful ecotourism resorts. According to statistics,
The Gambia has about 540 species of birds, most of which each can be seen along the coastline
and some in the inland of the country.
The Gambia River is the Gambia and the Gambia is the river Gambia. It is a major tourist attraction
and the dominant feature running through the heart of the country. In the lower estuary, mangroves
dominate the riverside, with extensive reed belts in the in-between zone, while where the
water is fresh, the banks are lined with gallery forest.
In recent years however, nature reserves, bird watching, and the rise of ecotourism has made the
Gambia an increasingly well-known travel and holiday destination. And for good reason. The
country is home to vibrant ecosystems, varied landscapes and many different animal species. From
savannahs to mangroves and wetlands.
We want to design an Eco-tourist facility and/or a bird observatory tower near the bank of the river
Gambia that will connect to the community. This will accommodate not only tourists coming to
visit the area, but also local people that are going to interact with the tourists within a social and
cultural aspect. This thesis is aiming to study and develop a sustainable model for the conflict that
exists between architecture and eco-tourism because of current practices and their impact on natural
habitat. Using bamboo as the main material for construction. Supported by the 3D printed
joints. Which can be “do-it-yourself (DIY)”.
The basic research methodology used in this research was qualitative. Firstly, I conducted a literatures
review as outlined in the second chapter. The primary discourse of this research focuses on
the practices of ecotourism in a place along the river Gambia. Exploring this issue is considered
an important aspect in examining the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic
growth, social equity, and environmental conservation. The following steps will be adopted in two
phases to come up with the final design. Research phase and Design phase. The design phase will
orient itself on creating proper design of thesis topic selected where the combination of all
knowledge gathered form research phase would be applied.
The site is located nearly 165 kilometers from Banjul. The site is located between Kiang west
national park and Boa bolong wetland reserve. It is situated on the banks of the river Gambia,
surrounded by woodland with plenty of birds, bush hogs and other wildlife.
Inappropriate tourism development and practice can degrade habitats and landscapes, deplete natural
resources, and generate waste and pollution. The local community is also in need of a better
and healthy living. This has become a social, cultural, and economical issue prevalent for decades
since there hasn’t been an established relationship between the local community and the tourist.
A way to approach this issue is through the education of the local people and tourism through
sustainable architecture and development. Community knowledge can be increased through environmental
sustainable building techniques or new building techniques in vernacular architecture.
Perhaps the community gets involve in the construction process, so they learn how to take care of
their surroundings and its stewardship. In this way the sustainability of well-being of human cultures
that inhibit those environments are sustained, and tourists can get engaged through community
learning and interaction.
論文目次 CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 2
1.1 The Gambia River 3
1.2 Tourism in the Gambia 6
1.3 Architecture of the Gambia 7
2. Objectives 10
3. Methodology and Steps 11
Chapter 2 Literature review 14
2.1 Ecotourism and Architecture 14
2.1.1 Nature and Landscape 15
2.2.2 Vernacular Architecture 17
2.3.3 Local participation in ecotourism. 19
2.2 Modernity in Tradition 20
2.2.1 Traditional construction materials 20
2.2.2 Bamboo tectonics 21
2.2.3 New Technology 24
2.3 Conclusion: Exploring the new vernacular architecture by integrating the bamboo tectonic with eco- tourism 26
Chapter 3: Case Study 28
3.1. (Structure) Ford calumet environmental center 28
3.2 (Program) Bay of fires lodge 30
3.3 (Landscape) Ridgetop Retreats. 32
3.4 (Material) Chalalan Ecolodge 34
Chapter 4 Site Analysis and strategy 38
4.1 Site analysis 38
4.1.2 Vegetation and landscape 41
4.1.3 Bird’s habitat. 42
4.1.4 Public usage 45
4.2 Site Strategy 45
4.2.1 Zone strategy 45
4.2.2 Program strategy 46
4.2.3 Vegetation strategy . 47
4.2.4 Material Study 49
Chapter: 5 Design experiment 54
Site Section. 55
Chapter: 6 Conclusion 63
6.1 Main findings and future study . 63
REFERENCE 65
Reference Website 66
Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics 66
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1.1UNTOUCHED LANDS OF THE GAMBIA (SOURCE: RIVER GAMBIA NATIONAL PARK) 1
FIGURE 1.2 BIRD WATCHING IN THE GAMBIA (SOURCE: HTTPS://WWW.GAMBIA.CO.UK) 2
FIG. 1.3MAP OF THE GAMBIA (SOURCE: WWW.ACCESSGAMBIA.COM) 3
FIG. 1.4 DENSE MANGROVE SWAMPS ALONG THE RIVER GAMBIA (SOURCE: WWW.ROBERTHARDING.COM) 4
FIG: 1.5 PALM OIL TREES ALONG THE RIVER GAMBIA (SOURCE: RIVER GAMBIA NATIONAL PARK) 4
FIG: 1.6 RIVER RESOURCES (SOURCE: WWW.GDRC.ORG/OCEANS/RIVER-MGMT.HTML ) 5
FIG: 1.7 DETAIL MAP OF THE GAMBIA (SOURCE: WWW.ACCESSGAMBIA.COM) 6
FIG: 1.8 TOURISTS ENJOYING THE GAMBIA SANDY BEACH (SOURCE: THE GAMBIA TOURISM BOARD) 7
FIG: 1.13 CONSTRUCTION METHODS (SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.ARCHITECTBUDS.YOLASITE.COM/) 9
FIG: 1.15 MODERN ARCHITECTURE OF THE GAMBIA (SOUREC:ACCESSGAMBIA.GM) 10
FIG 1.16MODERN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS OF THE GAMBIA (SOURCE: ACCESSGAMBIA.GM) 10
FIG: 1.17 FLOWCHART SHOWING THE FRAMEWORK 12
FIG: 2. 1MAKASUTU ECO-LODGE THE GAMBIA (SOURCE:MAKASUTU) 14
FIG.2.2 CHART SHOWING THE LANDSCAPE OF THE GAMBIA (SOURCE: WW.GBOS.GOV.GM) 16
FIG. 2.3 NATURAL LANDSCAPE ALONG THE RIVER GAMBIA (SOURCE: DREAMSTIME.COM) 17
FIG. 2.4 TYPICAL GAMBIAN VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE (SOURCE:
WWW.AFRICAVERNACULARARCHITECTURE.COM/GALLERY/GAMBIA/) 17
FIG. 2.5 DETAILS OF THE VERNACULAR CONSTRUCTION (SOURCE: WWW.AFRICAVERNACULARARCHITEC
TURE.COM/GALLERY/GAMBIA/) 18
FIG. 2.6 ART WORK ON SOME VERNACULAR BUILDING IN THE RURAL GAMBIA (SOURCE:
THECULTURETRIP.COM/GAMBIA) 19
FIG. 2.7 TRADITIONAL CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS (SOURCE: MEDIUM.COM) 21
IG.2.8 BAMBOO CONNECTION WITH ROPE (SOURCE: HTTP://BAMBOO.WIKISPACES.ASU.EDU) 22
FIG. 2.9 JOINING AND FIXATION OF BAMBOO POLES (SOURCE: WWW.GUADUABAMBOO.COM) 22
FIG. 2.10 DIFFERENT JOINING TECHNIQUE OF BAMBOO POLES (SOURCE: GUADUABAMBOO) 22
FIG. 2.12 METAL CONNECTION (SOURCE: I.PINIMG.COM) 23
FIG. 2.13 TIMELINE OF 3D PRINTING (SOURCE: WWW.3DERS.ORG) 24
FIG. 2.14 3D PRINTED JOINTS 25
FIG. 3.3 SECTION THROUGH THE LAB AND SOUTH PORCH FIG. 3.4 SECTION THROUGH THE AUDITORIUM 28
FIG. 3.5 SITE PLAN (SOURCE: ARCHDAILY.COM) 29
FIG. 3.6 1SUSTAINABLE FEATURES OF THE BUILDING FIG. 3.7 THE MAIN CONCEPT OF THE SCREEN DESIGN
29
FIG. 3.8 PORCH AREA (SOURCE: ARCHDAILY.COM) FIG. 3.9 BAY OF FIRES LODGE WALK (SOURCE:
ARCHDAILY.COM) 30
FIG. 3.10 INSIDE VIEW (SOURCE: ARCHDAILY.COM) FIG. 3.11 SITE ANALYSIS SUN PATH AND WIND
DIRECTION 30
FIG. 3.12 WIND AND SUNLIGHT DIAGRAMS FIG. 3.13 DESIGN AND STRUCTURE 31
FIG. 3.14 1 SUN DIAGRAM 31
FIG. 3.15 RIDGE TOP RETREAT (SOURCE: FLEURIEUCOAST.COM) FIG. 3.16 LODGE LOCATED ALONG THE
PARK 32
FIG. 3.17 INSIDE VIEW OF THE LOUNGE ALONG THE FIRE PLACE FIG. 3.18 DINING AREA WITH VIEWS TO THE
OUTSIDE 33
FIG. 3.19 DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES 33
FIG. 3.10 ECOLODGE AT CHALALAN (SOURCE:CHALALAN.COM) 34
FIG. 3.21 DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING THE RANDOM LOCATION OF THE ECOLODGES AT THE CHALALAN REGION 34
FIG. 3.22 SITE PLAN FIG. 3.23 1 COMMUNAL DINING 35
FIG. 3.24 1FIG. 3.24 DIFFERENT FLOOR PLAN ARRANGEMENTS 35
FIG. 3.25 CONNECTIONS BETWEEN ALL ECOLODGES 36
FIG. 4.1 SITE LOCATION 38
FIG. 4.3 KIANG WEST NATIONAL PARK (SOURCE: KIANG WEST NATIONAL PARK) 39
FIG.4.4 BAO BOLONG WETLAND RESERVE (SOURCE: BAO BOLONG WETLAND RESERVE) 40
FIG.4.5 NEARBY VILLAGES 40
FIG. 4.6WEATHER BAR CHART (AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL FOR THE LOCATION) 41
FIG. 4.7 1 EXISTING SITE LANDSCAPE 41
FIG. 4.8 NEST TYPES (SOURCE: WWW.ALLABOUTBIRDS.ORG) 42
FIG. 4.9 NESTING LOCATIONS (SOURCE: WWW.ALLABOUTBIRDS.ORG 43
FIG. 4.10 SKETCH SHOWING DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF BIRD’S VIEWING 43
TABLE 1.1 SHOWING BIRD’S HABIT 44
FIG. 4.11 PUBLIC MARKET AND SCHOOL (SOURCE: ACCESSGAMBIA.GM) 45
FIG. 4.12 DESIGN STRATEGY 45
FIG. 4.13 ZONE STRATEGY 46
FIG.4.14MAP SHOWING DIFFERENT ZONES 46
FIG.4.15 EXISTING TREES ON THE SITE (SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.ACCESSGAMBIA.COM) 47
FIG. 4.16 PROPOSED SITE LANDSCAPE 48
FIG.4.17 PROPOSED TREE PLANTING (SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.ACCESSGAMBIA.COM) 48
FIG.4.18 BAMBOO TREE (SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.COMPLETEBAMBOO.COM) 49
FIG.4.19 BAMBOO FOUNDATIONS (SOURCE: HTTP://BAMBOO.WIKISPACES.ASU.EDU) 50
FIG.4.20 BAMBOO WALLS (HTTP://BAMBOO.WIKISPACES.ASU.EDU) 50
FIG.4.21 BAMBOO ROOF (HTTP://BAMBOO.WIKISPACES.ASU.EDU) 51
FIG. 5.2 SITE SECTION 55
FIG. 5.3MAIN BUILDING 56
FIG. 5.4 MAIN BUILDING IDEAS 1 57
FIG. 5.5 ACCOMMODATION 58
FIG. 5.5 DETAILS 59
FIG. 5.6 BAMBOO TECTONIC 60
FIG. 5.7 SITE MODEL 61
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 4.1 SHOWING BIRD’S HABIT 44
參考文獻 REFERENCE
ACOTT, T.G., LA TROBE, H.L. AND HOWARD, S.H. (1998) AN EVALUATION OF DEEP ECOTOURISM
AND SHALLOW ECOTOURISM. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM WEAVER, 2001B, PP. 238-253
ARONSSON, L (1993): SUSTAINABLE TOURISM SYSTEMS: THE EXAMPLE OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL
TOURISM IN SWEDEN. IN: BRAMWELL, B. AND LANE, B. (EDS). RURAL TOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT. CLEVEDON: CHANNEL VIEW, PP.77-92.
BLAMEY, R.K (2001): “PRINCIPLES OF ECOTOURISM”. IN WEAVER, D.B (ED.) THE ENCYCLOPEDIA
OF ECOTOURISM,WALLINGFORD AND CAMBRIDGE: CAB INTERNATIONAL. CHAPTER 1, P: 5-22.
BRUNSKILL, R.W. 2000. VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE: AN ILLUSTRATED HANDBOOK 4TH ED.
CARNEY, J., GILLESPIE, T. W., AND ROSOMOFF, R. (2014). ASSESSING FOREST CHANGE IN A PRIORITY
WEST AFRICAN MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM: 1986–2010. GEOFORUM 53: 126–135.
CURTIS, 1996, MODERN ARCHITECTURE SINCE 1900 (3RD ED.)
FATHY ET AL. 1986, WALTER SHEARER, SULTAN ABD AL-RAHMAN.NATURAL ENERGY AND
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE: PRINCIPLES AND EXAMPLES WITH REFERENCE TO HOT ARID CLIMATES
FENNELL, DAVID. (1999) ECOTOURISM: AN INTRODUCTION. LONDON: ROUTLEDGE.
FRIEDMAN, 2012 A.V.I. FUNDAMENTALS OF SUSTAINABLE DWELLINGS
GORDON (1976): THE NEW SCIENCE OF STRONG MATERIALS OR WHY YOU DON'T FALL THROUGH THE
FLOOR
HONEY,MARTHA (2008): ECOTOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: WHO OWNS PARADISE?
2ND (ED).WASHINGTON DC: ISLAND PRESS
JAMES WINES &PHILIP JODIDIO, (2000): GREEN ARCHITECTURE
JENKINS, H., (2006). CONVERGENCE CULTURE: WHERE OLD AND NEW MEDIA COLLIDE.
LEKSAKUNDILOK, A. (2004): COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THAILAND.
OLIVER, 2003 PAUL OLIVER DWELLINGS: THE VERNACULAR HOUSE WORLDWIDE. REV. ED PHAIDON,
LONDON (2003)
RAPOPORT, 2005: CULTURE, ARCHITECTURE, AND DESIGN, ARCHITECTURAL AND PLANNING RESEARCH
BOOK SERIES LOCKE SCIENCE PUB. CO, CHICAGO (2005)
RATTO, M. (2010). CRITICAL MAKING: CONCEPTUAL AND MATERIAL STUDIES IN TECHNOLOGY
AND SOCIAL LIFE.
WORKS CITED
DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID). CHANGING THE NATURE OF TOURISM.
GORMAN, JACKIE. 2000 AN ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT STRATEGY FOR THE GAMBIA.
DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT, ABUKO NATURE RESERVE: ECOTOURISM
DEVELOPMENT UNIT
LEWIS, 2014. THE NATIVE BUILDER. NEW YORK TIMES 2014 (CITED 15.11.14).
SALLAH, HALIFA. 1999 REPORT ON A SEMINAR ON PRIVATE SMALL-SCALE AND COMMUNITYBASED
TOURISM ENTERPRISES.
Reference Website
Ford calumet environmental center
https://www.archdaily.com
Chalalan Ecolodge
http://chalalan.com/es/index_en.php
The Gambia Ministry of Tourism & Culture (MOTC)
www.motc.gov.gm
Birding in the Gambia
HTTP://WWW.ACCESSGAMBIA.COM
Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics
HTTPS://EROS.USGS.GOV/WESTAFRICA/COUNTRY/REPUBLIC-GAMBIA
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