淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-0308201116442200
中文論文名稱 「無我」、「佈施」及「整全觀」與生態之關聯:以《華嚴經》為範本
英文論文名稱 “Non-self,” “Alms-giving,” and “Holistic Worldview” in Relation to Ecology: A Study of the Hua-yen Sutra
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 黃文忠
研究生英文姓名 Wen-Chung Huang
學號 891010026
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2011-06-29
論文頁數 196頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊銘塗
共同指導教授-黃逸民
委員-黃如瑩
委員-蔡淑芬
委員-張雅蘭
委員-杜德倫
委員-楊銘塗
中文關鍵字 無我  五戒  四聖諦  八正道  精神生態學  深層生態學  自我實現  六波羅密  十波羅密  大乘菩薩道  整全式世界觀  善財童子  善財五十三參  十地  華嚴 
英文關鍵字 Non-self  Five precepts  Four Noble Truths  Noble Eightfold Path  Spiritual ecology  Deep ecology  Self-realization  Six paramitas  Ten paramitas  Mahayana Bodhisattva Path  Holistic worldview  Sudhana  The Pilgrimage of Sudhana  Ten Stags  Hua-yen 
學科別分類
中文摘要 若要徹底地來應對並解決生態環境議題,需要回歸到個人「整全式」的世界觀去轉換,以替代狹隘且機械化的人中心主義,其中所要牽連帶動的改變,絕非僅靠著社會運動或律法的規範即可達成。精神生態學的研究範疇與目的,主要立論於人類精神層面的轉化與昇華,來處理生態永續發展的議題。本論文將聚焦在佛教基本教義—「無我」、「佈施」及「整全觀」—來探討生態議題,期望能替生態永續的目標找出一條活路。本論文研究的主軸將定位在以整全觀聞名的大乘佛教經典《華嚴經》。如果要徹底解決環境問題,則必須從人心的改造與昇華著手。在這個方面,《華嚴經》絕對能提供現代人必要的幫助。
第一章著重於探討「無我論」與個人生態意識之探討。我從「無我論」推證至「空性」、「互為存在」以及簡樸的心靈及生活型態。從40卷《華嚴經》當中,我們清楚地了解到佛陀對於環境的重視,並且也同時了解到人心墮落所導至的「貪」、「瞋」、「癡」三毒才是造成今日環境破壞的主因。藉由「無我論」的認知及基本戒律的修持,世人可望看到這世界萬象當中「物物相關聯」的本質。世人將可以更謙遜的眼光來看待這世界,會開使學習過著「外表簡樸、內在豐富」的生態人的生活。
第二章將探討「佈施」與大乘佛教「菩薩道」。「佈施」為「六波羅密」之首,也是一般人在日常生活中隨時隨地可執行的利人善行。「六波羅密」或「十波羅密」為大乘菩薩修鍊過程中的必修課程,其主要目的在於幫助世人消除「我執」,並且展開生態菩薩「上求菩提、下化眾生」的濟世生涯。
第三章將著眼於《華嚴經》當中的「整全觀」之探討。我將分析《華嚴經》中「七處九會」的佛教宇宙觀及其與「整全觀」的關聯性。《華嚴經》的特色在於它在最後的章節安排了善財童子53參,為整部《華嚴經》作出摘要式的總結,如能真心誠意地發起菩提心並確實執行利他善行,人人皆可為善財、可入菩薩道、可為人間的生態環境作出貢獻。
英文摘要 Modern ecological problems result mainly from narrow-minded and mechanistic anthropocentrism. The task of cutting the Gordian knot of ecological issues must involve transformations towards the personally holistic level and be motivated by more than mere social movements and political and legislative decisions. Spiritual ecology aims for the transformation and sublimation of human spirituality, which is urgently needed in order to deal effectively with ecological issues. This dissertation aims to explore possible solutions to environmental problems from the angles of basic Buddhist teachings—“Non-self,” “Alms-giving,” and “Holistic worldview.” Hua-yen Sutra, the primary text of this dissertation, is a sutra famous for its holistic worldview. It surely can contribute a lot to the task of transforming and sublimating human spirituality.
The first chapter focuses on the discussion of the inter-relatedness of “non-self” and the eco-system of human consciousness. From the basic teaching of “non-self,” I derive such notions as “emptiness,” “emptiness of selfhood,” “inter-being,” and a mindset and life-style of simplicity. Through the reading of the Hua-yen Sutra, we come to know the emphasis the Buddha put on the environment and also the root causes of modern environmental problems—“greed,” “aversion,” and “ignorance”—that is, the “three poisons,” which are the inevitable results of the degeneration of human morality. It is my firm belief that, through the intuitive understanding of “non-self” and the actual practice of precepts, people are able to see deep into the very nature of mundane phenomena, that is, the “interconnectedness of everything.” People will be humbler in treating every creature and occurrence in this mundane world and will start learning to live an eco-friendly life that is “outwardly simple but inwardly rich.”
The second chapter is devoted to the topic of “alms-giving” and its relation to the Mahayana “Bodhisattva Path.” As the head of the “Six Paramitas,” “alms-giving” can be practiced by every person in daily life in an altruistic way. “Six Paramitas” or “Ten Paramitas” is a required course for any Mahayana bodhisattva. They help us eliminate the tendency of ego-clinging and start the life career of ecological persons, which is based on the altruistic notion of “striving upward for enlightenment and going downward for liberation of sentient beings.”
The third chapter is devoted to the exploration of the “holistic worldview” in the Hua-yen Sutra. I will elaborate on the “nine conferences taking place in seven places” and their relations to a holistic worldview. The uniqueness of the Hua-yen Sutra lies in the pilgrimage of Sudhana, in which Sudhana pays 53 visits to spiritual teachers. This summarizes the previous books of the Sutra. Everyone of us can be Sudhana, carrying out altruistic deeds and contributing to the improvement of the eco-system.
論文目次 Table of Contents

Acknowledgements . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . i
Chinese Abstract . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
English Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Chapter One:
Buddhist Notion of “Non-self” in Relation to the Eco-system of Human Consciousness . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Chapter Two:
Alms-giving: The Six Paramitas and the Bodhisattva Path. . . . . . . . . 77


Chapter Three:
Holistic Worldview of the Hua-yen Sutra in Relation to Ecology . . . . .115


Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145


Glossary of Sanskrit and Buddhist Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150


References and Works Cited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181



參考文獻 Abe, Masao. Zen and Western Thought. Ed. William R. La Fleur. Honolulu: Hawaii UP, 1985.
Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous. New York: Vintage Books, 1996.
Almass, A. H. The Pearl beyond Price: Integration of Personality into Being. Berkeley: Diamond Books, 1998.
Badiner, Allan Hunt. Ed. Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology. Berkeley: Parallax, 1990.
Barnhill, David Landis. “Great Earth Sangha: Gary Snyder’s View of Nature as Community.” Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and Duncan Ryuken Williams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997. 187-217.
Barnhill, David Landis, and Roger S. Gottlieb. Ed. Deep Ecology and World Religion: New Essays on Sacred Grounds. Albany: State U of New York P, 2001.
Batchelor, Martine, and Kerry Brown. Ed. Buddhism and Ecology. New York: Cassell, 1992.
---. Ed. “Look Deep and Smile: The Thoughts and Experiences of a Vietnamese Monk.” Buddhism and Ecology. New York: Cassell, 1992. 100-109.
Bate, Jonathan. The Song of the Earth. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 2000.
Bateson, Gregory. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc., 1972.
Bender, Frederic L. The Culture of Extinction: Toward a Philosophy of Deep Ecology. New York: Humanity Books, 2003.
Berman, Morris. The Reenchantment of the World. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1981.
Berry, Thomas. “The Ecozoic Era.” Eleventh Annual E. F. Schumacher Lectures. Great Barrington, Mass.: E. F. Schumacher Society.
Bion, Wilfred R. Attention and Interpretation. London: Tavistock Publications, 1970.
Brown, Brian. “Toward a Buddhist Ecological Cosmology.” Worldviews and Ecology: Religion, Philosophy, and the Environment. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and John A. Grim. New York: Orbis Books, 1994. 124-37.
Burke, T. Patrick. The Major Religions: An Introduction with Texts. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004.
Callicott, J. Baird, and Roger T. Ames. Ed. Nature In Asian Traditions of Thought. Albany: State U of New York P, 1989.
Capra, Fritjof. The Tao of Physics: An Exploration of the Parallels between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism. Boston: Shambhala, 1975.
---, The Turning Point: Science, Society, and the Rising Culture. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982.
Chang, Garma C. C. The Buddhist Teaching of Totality: The Philosophy of Hwa Yen Buddhism. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1971.
Chen, Chi-ying. Modern Interpretations of the Beauty of Spatial Dimensions in the Book ‘Entry into the Realm of Reality’ of the Hua-yen Sutra 《〈華嚴經‧入法界品〉空間美感的當代詮釋》Taipei: Dharma Drum, 2007.
Chung, Ling. Gary Snyder and Asian Cultures: A Paradigm of How the West Fuses Oriental Traditions. Taipei, Taiwan: Lien Ching, 2003.
Clarke, J.J. Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter between Asian and Western Thought. London and New York: Routledge, 1997.
Cleary, Thomas. The Flower Ornament Scripture: A Translation of the Avatamsaka Sutra. Boston: Shambhala, 1993.
---. Entry into the Inconceivable: An Introduction to Hua-Yen Buddhism. Honolulu: U of Hawaii P, 1983.
Coates, Peter. Nature: Western Attitudes Since Ancient Times. Los Angeles: U of California P, 2005.
Cook, Francis H. Hua-yen Buddhism: The Jewel Net of Indra. New York: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1977.
---. “The Jewel Net of Indra.” Nature In Asian Traditions of Thought. Ed. J. Baird Callicott, and Roger T. Ames. Albany: State U of New York P, 1989. 213-29.
Conze, Edward. Buddhism: Its Essence and Development. New York: New York UP, 1951.
Cooper, David E. and Joy A. Palmer. Eds. Spirit of the Environment: Religion, Value, and Environmental Concern. London: Routledge, 1998.
Cronon, William. Ed. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. New York: Norton, 1996.
Dalai Lama, et al. A Taste of Dharma. Taipei: Torch of Wisdom, 1994.
---. The Way to Freedom: Core Teachings of Tibetan Buddhism. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1994.
de Silva, Padmasiri. Environmental Philosophy and Ethics in Buddhism. London: Macmillan, 1998.
Dobson, Andrew. Green Political Thought. London: Routledge, 1995.
Drengson, Alan and Yuichi Inoue. Eds. The Deep Ecology Movement: An Introductory Anthology. Berkeley: North Atlantic Publishers, 1995.
Dumoulin, Heinrich. A History of Zen Buddhism. Trans. Paul Peachey. London: Pantheon Books, 1963.
Earhart, H. Byron. Religion in the Japanese Experience: Sources and Interpretations. Encino, California: Dickenson Publishing, 1974.
Edgerton, Franklin. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. New Haven: Yale UP, 1953.
Einstein, Albert. Albert Einstein: The Human Side. Ed. Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman. New Jersey: Princeton UP, 1954.
Elgin, Duane. Voluntary Simplicity: Toward A Way of Life That Is Outwardly Simple, Inwardly Rich. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1981.
Evernden, Neil. The Natural Alien. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985.
Ferkiss, Victor. Nature, Technology, and Society: Cultural Roots of the Current Environmental Crisis. New York: New York UP, 1993.
Fisher, Andy. Radical Ecopsychology: Psychology in the Service of Life. Albany: State U of New York P, 2002.
Fox, Warwick. Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing New Foundations for Environmentalism. Albany, New York: State U of New York P, 1995.
Frese, Werner Sattmann. Sustainable Living for a Sustainable Earth: From an Education for a Sustainable Development Towards an Education for Sustainable Living. Diss. Western Sydney University, 2005.
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. Trans. James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton, 1961.
Glendinning, C. My Name Is Chellis & I’m in Recovery from Western Civilization. Boston: Shambhala, 1994.
Gore, Albert, Jr. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. New York: Houghton Mifflin. 1992.
Gray, Timothy. “Gary Snyder: Poet-Geographer of the Pacific Rim,” Studies in the Humanities 26.1-2 (1999): 18-40.
Grey, William. “Anthropocentrism and Deep Ecology.” Australian Journal of Philosophy 71.4 (1993): 463-75.
Gross, Rita M. “Buddhist Resources for Issues of Population, Consumption, and the Environment.” Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and Duncan Ryuken Williams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997. 291-311.
---. “Population, Consumption, and the Environment.” Dharma Rain: Sources for Buddhist Environmentalism. Ed. Stephanie Kaza. Boston: Shambhala, 1999. 409-22.
Habito, Ruben L. F. “Mountains and Rivers and the Great Earth: Zen and Ecology.” Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and Duncan Ryuken Williams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997. 165-75.
Harris, Ian. “Buddhism and the Discourse of Environmental Concern: Some Methodological Problems Considered.” Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and Duncan Ryuken Williams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997. 377-402.
Harvey, David. Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference. London: Blackwell, 1996.
Harvey, Peter. An Introduction to Buddhism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.
---. An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values, and Issues. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000.
Hayward, Jeremy W. Letters to Vanessa: On Love, Science, and Awareness in an Enchanted World. Boston: Shambhala, 1997.
Henning, Daniel H. Buddhism and Deep Ecology. Philadelphia: Xlibris Corporation, 2001.
Hobsbawn, Eric. “Introduction: Inventing Traditions,” The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983.
Humphreys, Christmas. Zen Comes West: The Present and Future of Zen Buddhism in Western Society. London: Curzon Press, 1960.
Ingram, Paul O. “The Jeweled Net of Nature.” Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and Duncan Ryuken Williams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997. 71-88.
Kabilsingh, Chatsumarn. “How Buddhism Can Help Protect Nature.” Tree of Life: Buddhism and Protection of Nature. Ed. Shann Davies. Hong Kong: Buddhist Perception of Nature Project, 1987. 7-15.
Kaza, Stephanie. “Planting seeds of Joy.” Earth and Spirit. Ed. Fritz Hull. New York: Contnuum, 1993. 137-48.
---. “Toward a Buddhist Environmental Ethic.” Buddhism at the Crossroads. 6.4 (1990): 22-25.
Kormondy, Edward J. Concepts of Ecology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984.
Kraft, Kenneth. “Nuclear Ecology and Engaged Buddhism.” Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and Duncan Ryuken Williams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997. 269-90.
Kryder, Rowena Pattee. Sacred Ground to Sacred Space: Visionary Ecology, Perennial Wisdom, Environmental Ritual and Art. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Bear & Company Publishing, 1994.
LaFargue, Michael. “‘Nature’ as Part of Human Culture in Daoism.” Daoism and Ecology: Ways Within a Cosmic Landscape. Ed. N.J. Girardot, James Miller, and Liu Xiaogan. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard UP, 2001. 45-60.
Leopold, Aldo. A Sand County Almanac. New York: Ballantine Books, 1970.
Loori, John Daido. “The Precepts and the Environment.” Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and Duncan Ryuken Williams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997. 177-84.
Loy, David. The Great Awakening: A Buddhist Social Theory. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2003.
Luk, Charles. Tran. The Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra. Berkeley and London: Shambhala, 1972.
Lusthaus, Dan. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of Yogacara Buddhism and the Ch’eng Wei-shih lun. New York: Routledge Curzon, 2002.
Macy, Joanna. “The Greening of the Self.” Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology. Ed. Allan Hunt Badiner. Berkeley: Parallax, 1990. 53-63.
Meine, Curt. Aldo Leopold: His Life and Work. Madison, Wisconsin: The U of Wisconsin P, 1988.
Merchant, Carolyn. Ed. Ecology. New York: Humanity Books, 1999.
Merton, Thomas. Zen and the Birds of Appetite. New York: New Directions, 1968.
Metzner, Ralph. Green Psychology: Transforming Our Relationship to the Earth. Rochester, Vermont: Park Street Press, 1999.
---. “The Split between Spirit and Nature in European Consciousness.” The Trumpeter. 10.1 (1993) 115.
Milbrath, Lester W. Envisioning A Sustainable Society: Learning Our Way Out. Albany: State U of New York P, 1989.
Naess, Arne. “Self-Realization: An Ecological Approach to Being in the World,” Deep Ecology for the 21st Century. Ed. George Sessions. Boston: Shambhala, 1995. 225-39.
---. “The Deep Ecological Movement: Some Philosophical Aspects,” Deep Ecology for the 21st Century. Ed. George Sessions. Boston: Shambhala, 1995. 64-84.
Nash, Roderick Frazier. The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics. Madison: The U of Wisconsin P, 1989.
---. “Aldo Leopold’s Intellectual Heritage.” Companion to A Sand County Almanac. Ed. J. Baird Callicott. Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin UP, 1987. 63-88.
Northcott, Michael S. The Environment and Christian Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996.
Odin, Steve. Process Metaphysics and Hua-yen Buddhism. Albany: State U of New York P, 1982.
Olsen, Marvin E., Lodwick, Dora G., and Riley E. Dunlap. Viewing the World Ecologically. Boulder: Westview Press, 1992.
Phillips, Dana. The Truth of Ecology: Nature, Culture, and Literature in America. New York: Oxford UP, 2003.
Rahula, Walpola. What the Buddha Taught. Taipei: Torch of Wisdom, 1990.
Reason, Peter. Ed. Participation in Human Inquiry. London: Sage Publications, 1994.
Rockefeller, Steven C., and John C. Elder. Ed. Spirit and Nature: Why the Environment Is a Religious Issue. Boston: Beacon, 1992.
Roszak, Theodore. The Voice of the Earth: An Exploration of Ecopsychology. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Phanes, 2001.
Roszak, Theodore, Mary E. Gomes, and Allen D. Kanner. Ed. Ecopsychology: Restoring the Earth, Healing the Mind. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1995.
Scriven, Tal. Wrongness, Wisdom, and Wilderness: Toward a Liberation Theory of Ethics and the Environment. Albany: State U of New York P, 1997.
Sessions, George. Ed. Deep Ecology for the 21st Century. Boston: Shambhala, 1995.
Seung Sahn. The Compass of Zen. Boston: Shambhala, 1997.
Sheng Yen, the Chan Master. Orthodox Chinese Buddhism: A Contemporary Chan Master’s Answers to Common Questions. Trans. Douglas Gildow and Otto Chang. Elmhurst, New York: Dharma Drum Publications, 2007.
Smith, Mick. An Ethics of Place: Radical Ecology, Postmodernity, and Social Theory. Albany: State U of New York P, 2001.
Snyder, Gary. A Place in Space: Ethics, Aesthetics, and Watersheds. New York: Counterpoint, 1995.
---. The Practice of the Wild. New York: North Point, 1990.
---. Earth House Hold: Technical Notes & Queries to Fellow Dharma Revolutionaries. New York: New Directions Books, 1957.
Soper, Kate. What Is Nature? Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.
Sponberg, Alan. “Green Buddhism and the Hierarchy of Compassion.” Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and Duncan Ryuken Williams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997. 351-76.
Spretnak, Charlene. States of Grace: The Recovery of Meaning in the Postmodern Age. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991.
Sulak, Sivaraksa. Global Problem-Solving: A Buddhist Perspective, Buddhism and Global Nonviolent Problem Solving – Ulan Bator Explorations. Ed. Glenn D. Paige and Sarah Gilliatt. University of Hawaii, 1989. 21 May, 2007.
---. Seeds of Peace. Berkeley: Parallax, 1992.
Suzuki, David. The Sacred Balance: Rediscovering Our Place in Nature. Vancouver: Greystone Books, 1997.
Suzuki, D. T. The Essence of Buddhism. Kyoto, Japan: Hozokan, 1968.
---. On Indian Mahayana Buddhism. Ed. E. Conze. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
---. Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952.
---. “Preface” Mahayana Buddhism. B. L. Suzuki. London: Allen & Unwin, 1959.
Swearer, Donald K. “The Hermeneutics of Buddhist Ecology in Contemporary Thailand.” Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and Duncan Ryuken Williams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997. 21-44.
Thich, Nhat Hanh. Essential Writings. Ed. Robert Ellsberg. New York: Orbis Books, 2001.
---. Interbeing: Fourteen Guidelines for Engaged Buddhism. Ed. Fred Eppsteiner. Berkeley, California: Parallax, 1998.
---. Peaceful Action, Open Heart: Lessons from the Lotus Sutra. Berkeley, California: Parallax, 2008
Timmerman, Peter. “It Is Dark Outside: Western Buddhism from the Enlightenment to the Global Crisis.” Buddhism and Ecology. Ed. Martine Batchelor, and Kerry Brown. New York: Cassell, 1992. 65-76.
Tu, Wei-ming. “Beyond the Enlightenment Mentality.” Worldviews and Ecology: Religion, Philosophy, and the Environment. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and John A. Grim. New York: Orbis Books, 1994. 19-29.
Tucker, Mary Evelyn. “Ecological Themes in Taoism and Confucianism” Worldviews and Ecology: Religion, Philosophy, and the Environment. Ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, and John A. Grim. New York: Orbis Books, 1994. 150-60.
Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and Duncan Ryuken Williams. Ed. Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997.
Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and John A. Grim. Ed. Worldviews and Ecology: Religion, Philosophy, and the Environment. New York: Orbis Books, 1994.
Waldron, William S. The Buddhist Unconscious: The Alaya-Vijnana in the Context of Indian Buddhist Thought. New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003.
Watson, Burton. Tran. The Lotus Sutra. New York: Columbia UP, 1993.
Watts, Allan W. The Way of Zen. New York: Vintage, 1989.
---. The Spirit of Zen. New York: Grove, 1958.
Welwood, John. Toward a Psychology of Awakening: Buddhism, Psychotherapy, and the Path of Personal and Spiritual Transformation. Boston: Shambhala, 2000.
Wilson, Edward O. Biophilia. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1984.
---. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. New York: Vintage, 1998.
Wong, Kiew Kit. The Complete Book of Zen. Shaftesbury: Element, 1998.
Yang, Ming-tu. “The Widening Circles of Good-willed Psychokinesis: Buddhism and Ecology 〈善心的內力向外推:談佛教與生態〉.” An unpublished paper written in Chinese.
Zimmerman, Michael E. Contesting Earth’s Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity. Berkeley: California UP, 1994.

中文參考書目
一行禪師 著 《觀照的奇蹟》 周和君 譯 台北:橡樹林,2004。
--- 《經王法華經》 方怡蓉 譯 台北:橡實文化,2007。
方東美 著 《華嚴宗哲學上下冊》 台北:黎明文化,1981。
于凌波 著 《唯識學十二講》 台北:慧炬,2007。
吳汝鈞 著 《純粹力動現象學》 台北:台灣商務,2005。
--- 《胡塞爾現象學解析》 台北:台灣商務,2001。
--- 《機體與力動:懷德海哲學研究與對話》 台北:台灣商務,2004。
林朝成、郭朝順 著 《佛學概論》 台北:三民,2007。
林崇安 著 《佛教的生命觀與宇宙論》 台北:慧炬,1994。
松長有慶 著 《東方智慧的崛起:密教》 吳守鋼 譯 台北:大千,2008。
沈清松 主編 《心靈轉向》 台北:立緒,1997。
果濱居士 著 《果濱學術論文集(一)》 台北:萬卷樓,2010。
南懷瑾 講述 《金剛經說甚麼》 台北:老古文化,1992。
陳琪瑛 著 《〈華嚴經‧入法界品〉空間美感的當代詮釋 》 台北:法鼓文化,2007。
伊凡 著 《這本〈華嚴經〉很受用》 台北:曼尼文化,2007。
宣化禪師 講述 《大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋 23冊》 台北:法界佛教印經會,2001。
佐佐木現順 著 《業的思想》 周柔含 譯 台北:東大,2003。
洪啟嵩 著 《佛教的宇宙觀》 台北:全佛文化,2006。
柳絮 著 《法華經新解新著》 台北:慧炬,1987。
楊銘塗 著 〈善心的內力向外推:談佛教與生態〉 未出版
--- 〈生態女性主義評析〉,《生態人文主義 三》 林耀福 主編 台北:書林,2006。
楊政河 著 《華嚴哲學研究》 台北:慧炬,1992。
橫山紘一 著 《唯識思想入門》 許洋主 譯 台北:東大,2007。
夢參老和尚 講述 《八十華嚴講述:淺說華嚴大意》 台北:方廣文化,2009。
聖嚴法師 著 《正信的佛教》 台北:法鼓文化,1999。
圓持 編著 《佛教倫理》 台北:國家圖書館,2010。
蕭振士 編譯 《華嚴經易讀:入法界品上下冊》 台北:大千,2004。
鍾玲 著 《美國詩人史耐德與亞洲文化:西方吸納東方傳統的範例》 台北:聯經,2003。
龍樹菩薩 釋著 《圖解華嚴經:讀懂經中之王》 陜西省:陜西師範大學出版社,2008。

論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2013-08-10公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2013-08-10起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信