||Expenditure Tendencies of Pet Owner: Influence of Pet Utilities
||Executive Master’s Program of Business Administration（EMBA） in Management Sciences
Willingness To Purchase
本研究委託市調公司(104人力銀行)以網路問卷形式進行問卷發放，以曾經飼養過、或現在仍飼養寵物的飼主為主要問卷收集對象,共計回收有效樣本876份。以Amos17.0統計軟體進行信、效度分析，並以結構方程式進行假設檢定。實證結果如下：(一)、寵物與飼主間的共生關係、飼主的健康與飼主的社會化程度會對飼主的幸福感產生顯著的正向影響；(二)、寵物與飼主間的共生關係、飼主的健康與飼主的社會化程度會對飼主的擬人化行為是有顯著的正向影響；(三)、飼主的幸福感與飼主的擬人化行為與飼主的消費支付意願是有顯著的正向影響；(四)、飼主的性別對本研究架構有較佳的干擾效果。此外，本研究亦提出管理與理論意涵，並針對後續研究者提出建議，提供評估寵物產業的行銷方向，進而改善或加強。最後，由於本研究之理論模式結合了人類寵物陪伴關係及社區發展經濟模式，填補了Serpell (2003), Dotson 和 Hyatt (2008)、Miller 和Howell (2008)、Mosteller (2008) 等研究模式之不足，可提供給學術研究未來較廣泛之應用與參考。
||The increasing population of household cats and dogs in Taiwan has driven the rapid growth of the market of domestic pet-applications, including pet food and toys, and has reinforced the evolution of the pet-related application business toward a refined, healthy, anthropomorphic, high-quality, and prospective industry. Based on previous studies on human-pet relationships in the fields of psychology, economics, and marketing, we proposed an integrated framework comprising six constructs and eight hypotheses and applied this framework in empirical and statistical analysis. We identified the relationships between the utilities of maintaining human-pet companionships, namely symbiosis, health, and socialization, and happiness and anthropomorphism, which contribute to the expenditure patterns of domestic pet owners. The cause-and-effect model correlates the symbiosis, health, and socialization of pet owners with their happiness and anthropomorphic behavior, which subsequently contribute to their willingness to purchase (WTP).
We chose respondents who own pets or previously owned pets as targets to test the 26-item questionnaire and collected data by using the 104 online survey system. Using valid data on 876 domestic respondents, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis , search engine marketing , and the moderator test by using AMOS17.0 to examine the research hypotheses of the model. The hypotheses are all cause-effect proof , and the results are listed as follows: (a) symbiosis, health, and socialization exert significant and positive effects on happiness; (b) symbiosis, health, and socialization exert significant and positive effects on anthropomorphism; (c) anthropomorphism and happiness exert significant and positive effects on WTP; and (d) the moderating effects of respondent gender were used as the test variable. The theoretical model was developed by combining the research results of Serpell (2003), Dotson and Hyatt (2008), Miller and Howell (2008), and Mosteller (2008) to fill the research gap in previous studies. Finally, this study offers several managerial and theoretical implications for pet marketers, and recommendations for further research are provided.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND 1
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH 5
1.3 RESEARCH PROCESS AND THESIS ORGANIZATION 6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 SYMBIOSIS 8
2.2 HEALTH 10
2.3 SOCIALIZATION 12
2.4 HAPPINESS 13
2.5 ANTHROPOMORPHISM 15
2.6 WILLINGNESS TO PURCHASE 17
2.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SYMBIOSIS AND HAPPINESS 19
2.8 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEALTH AND HAPPINESS 21
2.9 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIALIZATION AND HAPPINESS 22
2.10 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SYMBIOSIS AND ANTHROPOMORPHISM 23
2.11 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEALTH AND ANTHROPOMORPHISM 25
2.12 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIALIZATION AND ANTHROPOMORPHISM 27
2.13 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAPPINESS AND WILLINGNESS TO PURCHASE 28
2.14 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANTHROPOMORPHISM AND WTP 29
2.15 GENDERS AND MODERATING EFFECTS 30
2.16 CHILDREN AND MODERATING EFFECTS 32
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH MODEL AND METHODOLOGY 34
3.1 RESEARCH SETTING 35
3.2 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN, PRE-TESTING 35
3.3 SAMPLE AND DATA COLLECTION 41
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS METHOD 42
3.4.1 Descriptive Statistics Analysis 42
3.4.2 Reliability and Validity Analysis 43
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT 44
4.1 SAMPLING AND RESPONDENT PROFILE 44
4.2 T-TESTS ANALYSIS 52
4.2.1 Overall Model Validation 52
4.3 MEASUREMENT MODEL ANALYSIS 55
4.4 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY 56
4.4.1 Reliability Analysis 57
4.4.2 Convergent Validity 59
4.4.3 Discriminant Validity 59
4.5 STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL ANALYSIS 61
4.5.1 Overall Model Validation 61
4.5.2 SEM Evaluation Hypothesis Test 62
4.5.3 The Moderating Role: Respondents’Gender 64
4.5.4 The Moderating Role of the Presence of Children 69
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 73
5.1 DISCUSSION 73
5.2 THEORETICAL IMPLICATION 74
5.3 MANAGERIAL IMPLICATION 76
5.4 LIMITATION AND FUTURE RESEARCH 78
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 Current Populations of Dogs and Cats 5
Table 3.1 Items of Symbiotic Pet-Human Companionship and Literature Sources 36
Table 3.2 Items of Health Pet-Human Companionship and Literature Sources 37
Table 3.3 Items of Socialization Pet-Human Companionship and Literature Sources 38
Table 3.4 Items of Happiness Pet-Human Companionship and Literature Sources 39
Table 3.5 Items of Anthropomorphism Pet-Human Companionship and Literature Sources 40
Table 3.6 Items of WTP Pet-Human Companionship and Literature Sources 41
Table 4.1 Demographic Variables of the Participants’ profiles 46
Table 4.2 t-Test Results: Respondents’ Marriage Status 52
Table 4.3 t-Test Results: Species of Respondents’ Pets 54
Table 4.4 Analysis of Measurement Accuracy 56
Table 4.5 Results of Measurement Accuracy Analysis 58
Table 4.6 Analysis of the Difference of Chi-square, AVE and squared correlation 60
Table 4.7 Analysis of Discriminant Validity 61
Table 4.8 Analysis of Goodness-of-fit measures 62
Table 4.9 Hypothesis Test Analysis 63
Table 4.10 Direct, Indirect and Total effects 64
Table 4.11 Invariance Tests across Respondents’ Gender 67
Table 4.12 Invariance Tests of the Presence of Children 71
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Household Cats and Dogs in Taiwan 2
Figure 1.2 Research Process 7
Figure 2.1 Factors influencing subjective happiness. Source: Jackson (2009) 14
Figure 3.1 The Research Conceptual Framework 34
Figure 4.1(a) Respondents' Gender Distribution 47
Figure 4.1(b) Respondents' Age Distribution 47
Figure 4.1(c) Respondents' Marriage Status 48
Figure 4.1(d) Respondents' Species 48
Figure 4.1(e) Respondents' Monthly Income 49
Figure 4.1(f) Respondents' Monthly Expenditure 49
Figure 4.1(g) Expenditure Comparison of Pet-owners’ Gender 50
Figure 4.1(h) Expenditure Comparison of Pet-owners’ Age 50
Figure 4.1(i) Expenditure Comparison of Pet-owners’ Marriage Status 51
Figure 4.1(j) Expenditure Comparison of Pet Species 51
Figure 4.2 Structure Equation Modeling Analyses 63
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