淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)

系統識別號 U0002-0303200822520800
中文論文名稱 企業組織危機管理機制與事前防範之研究
英文論文名稱 The Relationship between the Mechanism of Crisis Management and the Preventive Control in an Organization
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學研究所企業經營碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Executive Master's Program of Business Administration in Management Sciences
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 徐美玉
研究生英文姓名 Mei-Yu Hsu
學號 794590140
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-01-23
論文頁數 91頁
口試委員 指導教授-李培齊
中文關鍵字 危機  危機評量表 
英文關鍵字 Crisis  Crisis evaluation form 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 台灣以中小企業居多,約占整體企業98% 的比例,近年來受到全球化競爭的影響,所處的環境不確定性大幅提升,市場的需求瞬息變化,都面臨相當艱困的考驗。在面對激烈競爭的二十一世紀,產業受到內外環境的快速變化,都有可能遭受危機的威脅,現代企業必須將「營運管理」和「危機管理」並列為企業經營的兩大主軸,才能永續經營。
英文摘要 Taiwan is mostly small and medium-sized enterprises, account for the proportion of 98% of whole enterprises , it’s facing a very tough challenge influenced by competition of globalization in recent years, the environmental uncertainty increasing largely and the market demand changing variously as well.

When facing the strong competition in 21st century, all industries are influenced by the changing both internally and externally, which may be possibly threatened by any crisis circumstance, so that the successful enterprise must apply “business management and crisis management as well as the two major cores of enterprise management.

Generally speaking that any crisis possibility can be prevented, and the effort of prevention is much easier and more efficient than the solutions after the crisis issues happened as well as “the prevention is always better than the therapy”. However, many enterprises still have no idea where does the crisis come from, and do not know what is the solution to prevent the crisis may happened in any kind. Due to the limited resource, manpower and finance, enterprises may not be able to avoid or dissolve all kinds of internal or external crises. The motivation of this study is to explore if the work is still needed to take when the cost of crisis prevention in advance is higher than the actual cost produced from crisis itself?

The study is based on three factors such as financial analysis, asset allocation, and crisis management regarding the conception of accounting as well as the theoretical foundation. The objective and function of financial analysis is to assess the value of enterprises through it financial status in order to evaluate the business constitution. The assets are distributed to consider how to do the most appropriate, safe proportion to assign to the assets of the company in accordance with the attribute and position of enterprises, the number of its allocation proportion will influence the level of the risk that enterprises must bear, the proportion that the assets disposed was not at that time, the regular meeting caused the managerial crisis-ridden and uncontrollable crisis of foiling. The factors of the consideration of crisis and management are included every different industrial companies have completely different proportions between crisis management and crisis prevention, so that it must consider the industrial differences between each company. Overall, different organizations in different countries may face different issues of crisis. Every case has different situation even in the same type of crisis. Therefore, the solution may be different as well.

Regarding the key factors of crisis management, it should include corporate culture, organization structure, technical facility, emotion management as well as all of the four aspects must be included in complete consideration, execution, supervision, assessment, and analysis, and strengthen the domestic ability to crisis management of industrial circle. But when the unresistable calamity produces the crisis, utilize and avoid the dangerous measure to prevent in advance as much as possible, and when the organization or enterprises meet the accident concerned in great existence and happen, just start the crisis and deal with the mechanism. Take precautions against the respect in advance, emphasize all in the strick precaution mechanism in advance, the most important part should belong to and warn the detecting and examining and transmitting of information, because the function that the the earlier, the more correct one warns, prevent the best way in which the crisis produces . This study is majorly to probe into the proportion and how to make the decision between the crisis management and the assessment of prevention, which theoretical foundation according to accounting principle, the allocation ratio of assets and risk management. The accounting principle includes considering financial assets and distributing four principles, such as rationalization, budget assigning the rationalization, balance between revenue and expenditure to be rationalized and profit distribution rationalization, etc., use the theory counted by designing the classification standard to comment quantity, as the basis of mark of the index. Regard ' the choice ' as the main shaft that the materials are collected, design the form of commenting amount of the crisis to assess the risk, for enterprises to do the reference of decision. Fill in the crisis evaluation form in accordance with enterprise's own real states, analysis according to the materials filled out again, in order to judge the weight proportion tactics and choice that assigns prevented in crisis management and crisis that this organization must take it in consideration.
論文目次 目 錄
第一章、緒論 1
第一節、研究動機 1
第二節、研究目的 2
第三節、研究理論基礎 4
第二章、文獻探討 6
第一節、企業危機管理機制之意義 6
第二節、企業危機的類型與形成之原因 10
第三節、事前防範與危機處理 13
第三章、國內產業對危機處理與事前防範之現況探討 39
第一節、國內產業對事前防範之現況 39
第二節、國內產業對危機處理之心態與現況 41
第三節、危機管理機制之未來潮流與發展 44
第四章、研究方法 48
第一節、研究方法的理論背景 48
第二節、研究方法設計 49
第三節、資料收集 51
第五章、研究分析 53
第一節、評量資料統計 53
第二節、評量資料分析 54
第六章、結論與建議 59
第一節、危機管理與預防危機的經濟效益 60
第二節、危機管理與危機預防對企業之效能 61
第三節、企業如何組織團隊並降低風險 63
第四節、研究限制及後續建議 66

中文部份 67
英文部份 68

附錄ㄧ:危機評量表 70
附錄二:危機評量指數參考答案 78

表 目 錄
表2-1 危機管理的方法步驟 10
表2-2 企業危機評估排行榜 12
表2-3 危機造成企業衝擊的結果 13
表2-4 行政機關危機管理的程序作業 22
表2-5 危機處理的技巧要項 22
表2-6 危機管理計劃的結構 27
表2-7 危機處理專案小組的職務 28
表3-1 指數參考值 50
表3-2 調查公司背景資料 52
表4-1 評量指數統計表 53
表4-2 調查問卷概述表 54
表4-3 調查公司之判別結果 55

圖 目 錄
圖 2-1 EWS早期警示系統處理程序模式 16
圖 2-2 危機管理流程表 17
圖 2-3 危機管理流程 28
圖 2-4 危機管理的階段 31
圖 2-5 2000年版 ISO 9000系列標準 40
圖 2-6 ISO 22004:2005 作業流程圖 42
圖 2-7 風險管理的範圍 45
圖 2-8 風險管理流程 46
參考文獻 中文部份:

1. 于鳳娟譯 (2001),Otto Lerbinger 原著,危機管理,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
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3. 王京明 (2001),由加州電力危機 - 檢討我國電力自由化政策,
4. 王振軒 (2006),非政府組織的危機管理,“逢甲大學人文社會學報”,第13期,第311-338頁。
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10.邱毅 (1998),面對危機的因應和對策,“人力發展”,第4期,
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14. 吳宜蓁、徐詠絮譯 (2005),Ian I. Mitroff / Christine M. Pearson 等著,危機管理診斷手冊,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
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18. 詹中原 (2004),危機管理,台北:聯經出版公司。
19. 經濟部工業局 (2006),企業營運持續管理技術手冊。
20. 經濟部 (2007),2007中小企業白皮書。
21. 鄭燦堂 (1995),風險管理理論與實務,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
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23. 劉維義 (2005),危機管理計畫,工業技術研究院環安中心,風險管理技術研究室。


1. Department of State and Regional Development (2005),
Risk Management Guide for Small Business, New South Wales Government, Australia
2. Drucker, Peter C. (1982),Management Challenges for the 21st Century…..
3. Glassman, Cynthia (2000),An Evolution in Risk Strategy –- RMA Journal
4. Hermann, Charles F.(1972),Some Issues in the Study of International Crisis, in Charles F. Hermann, International Crisis: Insight from Behavioral Research, Free Press.
5. Mitroff, lan l.(2001),Managing Crisis Before Happen. New York: America Management Association.
6. Richardson, B. (1995), Paradox management for crisis avoidance. Management Decision, 33(1), pp5-18.
7. Sheaffer, Zachary (1998),Bill Richardson and Zehava Rosenblatt., "Early-Warning-Signals Management: A Lesson from the Barings Crisis." Journal of contingencies & crisis management, 6(1), pp.7-8.
8. Kathleen Fearn(1996),Banks Crisis Communication: A Casebook Approach, New Jersey:Lawrence Associates

Case Study:

1. U.S. Bankruptcy Court (2003),Judge Announces Settlement to End PG&E Bankruptcy & Key Provisions of CPUC (California Public Utilities Commission) - PG&E Proposed Settlement -- San Francisco, California
http://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/published/NEWS_RELEASE/27310.htm & http://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/published/report/27311.htm
2. California electricity crisis
3. California electricity crisis (From Wikipedia)
4. California Power Crisis 2000~2001
5. Pacific Gas and Electric Companion
6. Owens-Corning's Granville, OH plant
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