||Examining and Analyzing General Colin Powell’s Roles in the Two Persian Gulf Wars
||Graduate Institute of The Americas
the Weinberger Criteria on the Use of Force
the Persian Gulf War
National Security Decision-Making
||General Colin L. Powell (1937-present), a political superstar of the 1990s, has an extraordinary political and military career. He was promoted to the general rank in 1979 at the age of 41, and then in short order national security advisor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the secretary of state. He was not only the first African American to serve in each of the three important national security assignments, but also the only American in history to hold those three positions. Being propelled onto the national stage for his leading role in the overwhelming military success of Operation Desert Storm (1991), he has since then remained immensely popular among Americans due to his integrity, leadership, and the ability to transcend racial barriers.
Few figures in the past quarter century have played a more prominent role in American foreign and defense policy than Colin Powell, who was deeply engaged in the most important foreign and defense policy debates, such as the uses of American force in the wake of Vietnam, the quest for America’s new role in the post Cold-War world, the interventions in Panama (1989), and the two Gulf Wars (1991 and 2003). However, contrary to his popular image as a war hero, Powell was highly criticized by many top decision-makers, the presidents included, for his resistance to seeing military force as the primary foreign policy instrument in responding to crises. As a result, he was fundamentally marginalized or even isolated in the decision-making processes leading to the two Gulf Wars. Interestingly, his ultra-conservative military belief did not in any way diminish his chance in rising up the ladder of success, not at least until 2004 when George W. Bush asked him to resign as Secretary of State due to policy differences. By closely examining Powell’s military career and personal traits, as well as the evolution of military thinking since Vietnam, this dissertation seeks to unravel the myths surrounding this important, yet enigmatic figure, by analyzing what were the rationales behind Powell’s advocacy of military restraint and its linkage to his career.
There are four major findings.
1. Race did play a role in Powell’s remarkable career and was major factor at numerous points in his rapid ascent. He was specifically selected and nurtured in the early 1970s to serve as evidence of the efforts by the US military to promote racial progress. In the 1990s, his image as a role model for minorities made him a sought-after figure by both the Republicans and the Democrats in order to exploit the race card to political advantage. However, his image as a political superstar obfuscated the fact that he was more a functionary figure than a strategic thinker.
2. Although Powell opposed the notion that military force should be the predominant foreign policy instrument, he closely monitored the president in times of foreign policy crises in which the use of force was considered. When the two Bushes decided to go for military options against Saddam Hussein, Powell quickly compromised, and was swayed to a pro-war stance, making himself useful by helping eliminate barriers to successful military operations. Powell’s anti-interventionist decision-making approach was based on sophisticated political calculations. It was wise for him to bank on the anti-war mentality after Vietnam and he played the role as a prudent and cautious military leader, a move which would bring him enormous popular support and, along with it, vast political capital. On the other hand, the last minute reversal on war against Hussein also saved him from antagonizing the president, the ultimate decision-maker.
3. Powell was famously known as “the reluctant warrior” because he rarely advocated military intervention as the first solution to foreign policy crises. His reluctance to the use of force grew out of the bitter lessons the US military taken from Vietnam, which include that the war power should not be monopolized by civilian leadership, that the US military power is limited, that military force should only be used as a last resort, and that the American support for US military involvement is finite. These lessons were formalized in “the Weinberger Criteria,” a list of conditions that sought to avoid another Vietnam-quagmire by strictly regulating the application of US military force. However, the lessons the military drew from Vietnam were overly generalized or even flawed, thus making the “Weinberger Criteria” inappropriate to be the guiding principle with regard to the use of force. Powell’s insistence on the “Weinberger Criteria” only made his military advice unacceptable to political leadership and marginalized his roles in the decision-making processes of the two Persian Gulf Crises.
4. Powell was politically neutral during his career, never revealing any strong ideology or political inclination, which made him easily acceptable to most Americans, both conservatives and liberals. However, this political neutrality became his major liability when the nation faced a real security crisis posed by the 9/11 terrorist attacks. His archrivals in the George W Bush’s administration, the neoconservatives, though pursued a radical military approach that stood directly opposite to the prudent “Weinberger Criteria,” had, at least, strong convictions in American traditional political ideology and ideals. In a time of crisis when strong political leadership was required, President Bush determined to choose the neoconservatives over Powell to lead foreign policy, thus leading to the downfall of one of the greatest soldier-statesmen since Eisenhower, as well as the military conservatism he embodied.
第四章 第一次波灣危機決策過程與鮑威爾之角色. .............79
月旦編譯小組譯，瑪格麗特•柴契爾(Margaret Thatcher)著，《柴契爾夫人回憶錄：唐寧街歲月(下) 》。臺北市：月旦出版社，民83年。.
鈕先鍾譯，李昂納德(Leonard, Roger Ashley)輯，《克勞塞維茲戰爭論精華》。臺北市：軍事譯粹社，民65年。
楊南芳等譯，克勞塞維茨(Carl Von Clausewitz)著，《戰爭論卷一：論戰爭的性質、軍事天才、精神要素與軍隊的武德》。新北市：左岸文化事業公司，民101年。
期 刊、論 文
王亮，〈雷根政府援助尼游決策之評估〉。臺北縣淡水鎮 : 淡江大學美國研究所， 民86年。
Blix, Hans. Briefing of the Security Council. The United Nations Security Council, March 7, 2003.
Bush, George H.W. Address to the Nation Announcing the Deployment of United States Armed Forces to Saudi Arabia. Washington D.C.: The White House, Aug. 8, 1991.
Bush, George W. The National Security Strategy of the United States 2002. Washington D.C.: The White House, Sept. 17 2002.
Bush, George W. Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People. Sept. 20, 2001.
Cheney, Dick. Defense Strategy for the 1990s: The Regional Defense Strategy, Washington D.C. : U.S. Department of Defense, Jan. 1993.,
Clinton, William J. A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement. Washington, D.C.: The White House, Feb. 1995.
Leland, Anne and Mari-Jana Oboroceanu. American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service Report, Feb. 26, 2010.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission Report. July 26, 2004.
National Intelligence Estimate: Iraq's Continuing Programs for Weapons of Mass Destruction. The Central Intelligence Agency, Oct. 2002.
Shultz, George. Terrorism and the Modern World. Department of State Bulletin 84, 2093, Dec. 1984.
The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction. Unclassified Version of the Report of the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction. U.S. Government Printing Office, March 31, 2005.
Allison, Graham T. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. Boston: Little Brown, 1971.
Atkinson, Rick. Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1993.
Baker, James A., and Thomas M DeFrank. The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War, and Peace, 1989-1992. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1995.
Bacevich, Andrew J. The New American Militarism: How Americans Are Seduced by War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Bassford, Christopher. “The Primacy of Policy and the Trinity in Clausewitz’s Mature Thought.” In Clausewitz in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Hew Strachan and Andreas Herberg-Rothe, pp. 74-90. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Beschloss, Michael, and Strobe Talbott. At the Highest Levels: The Inside Story of the End of the Cold War. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993.
Burk, James. “The American Civil-Military Cultural Gap: A Historical Perspective, Colonial Times to the Present.” In Soldiers and Civilians: The Civil-Military Gap and American National Security, edited by Peter D. Feaver and Richard H. Kohn, pp. 215-246. Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2001.
Bush, George H.W., and Brent Scowcroft. A World Transformed. New York: Knopf, 1998.
Bush, George W. Decision Points. New York: Crown Publishers, 2010.
Cannon, Lou. President Reagan: the Role of a Lifetime. New York: Public Affairs, 2000.
Caplan, Neil. The Israel-Palestine Conflict: Contested Histories. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
Cheney, Richard B., and Liz Cheney. In My Time: a Personal and Political Memoir. New York: Threshold Editions, 2011.
Daalder, Ivo H., and I. M Destler. In the Shadow of the Oval Office: Profiles of the National Security Advisers and the Presidents They Served: From JFK to George W. Bush. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009.
Dallek, Robert. Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961-1973. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
DeYoung, Karen. Soldier: the Life of Colin Powell. New York: Knopf, 2006.
Draper, Robert. Dead Certain: The Presidency of George W. Bush. New York: Free Press, 2007.
Echevarria, Antulio J. Clausewitz and Contemporary War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Feith, Douglas J. War and Decision: Inside the Pentagon at the Dawn of the War on Terrorism. New York, NY: Harper, 2008.
Fisher, Louis. Presidential War Power. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.
Freedman, Lawrence, and Efraim Karsh. The Gulf Conflict, 1990-1991: Diplomacy and War in the New World Order. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Fukuyama, Francis. America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2006.
Gordon, Michael R., and Bernard E Trainor. The Generals' War: the Inside Story of the Conflict in the Gulf. Boston: Little Brown, 1995.
Greene, Robert J. The Presidency of George Bush. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000.
Halperin, Morton H., and Arnold Kanter. Readings in American Foreign Policy; a Bureaucratic Perspective. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973.
Halper, Stefan A., and Jonathan Clarke. America Alone: the Neo-conservatives and the Global Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Heilbrunn, Jacob. They Knew They Were Right: The Rise of the Neocons. New York: Doubleday, 2008.
Hoffman, F. G. Decisive Force: the New American Way of War. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996.
Huntington, Samuel P. The Common Defense: Strategic Programs in National Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.
Huntington, Samuel P. The Soldier and the State: the Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1957.
Hutchings, Robert L. American Diplomacy and the End of the Cold War: an Insider's Account of U.S. Policy in Europe, 1989-1992. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1997.
Jervis, Robert. Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1976.
Kaplan, Lawrence, and William Kristol. The War over Iraq: Saddam's Tyranny and America's Mission. San Francisco, Calif.: Encounter Books, 2003.
Kinross, Stuart. Clausewitz and America: Strategic Thought and Practice from Vietnam to Iraq. New York: Routledge, 2008.
Keynes, Edward. Undeclared War: Twilight Zone of Constitutional Power. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1982.
Lederman, Gordon N. Reorganizing the Joint Chiefs of Staff: The Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986. Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1999.
Locher, James R. “Unified At Last.” In American Defense Policy 8th edition, edited by Bolt, Paul J., Damon V. Coletta, and Collins G. Shackelford, pp. 151- 158. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.
Lock-Pullan, Richard. U.S. Intervention Policy and Army Innovation: From Vietnam to Iraq. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Mann, James. Rise of the Vulcans: the History of Bush's War Cabinet. New York: Viking, 2004.
McClellan, Scott. What Happened: Inside the Bush White House and Washington's Culture of Deception. New York: Public Affairs, 2008.
McEvoy-Levy, Siobhan. American Exceptionalism and US Foreign Policy: Public Diplomacy at the End of the Cold War. London: Palgrave, 2001.
McNamara, Robert S., and Brian VanDeMark. In Retrospect: the Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. New York: Times Books, 1995.
Moss, Kenneth B. Undeclared War and the Future of US Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2008.
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power: the Politics of Leadership. New York: Wiley, 1960.
O'Sullivan, Christopher D. Colin Powell: A Political Biography. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2009.
Parmet, Herbert S. George Bush: the Life of a Lone Star Yankee. New York: Scribner, 1997.
Powell, Colin L. My American Journey. New York: Random House, 1995.
Reagan, Ronald. An American Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990.
Risen, James. State of War: the Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration. New York: Free Press, 2006.
Rothkopf, David J. Running the World: the Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power. New York: Public Affairs, 2005.
Sarkesian, Sam C, John Allen Williams, and Stephen J. Cimbala. US National Security: Policymakers, Processes, and Politics. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008.
Shultz, George. Turmoil and Triumph: Diplomacy, Power, and the Victory of the American Ideal. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993.
Snow, Donald M., and Eugene Brown. Beyond the Water's Edge: an Introduction to U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.
Strachan, Hew. “Clausewitz and the Dialects of War.” In Clausewitz in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Hew Strachan and Andreas Herberg-Rothe, pp. 14-44. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Summers, Harry G. On Strategy: a Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War. New York: Dell, 1984.
Szayna, Thomas S., Kevin F. McCarthy, Jerry M. Sollinger, Linda J. Demaine, Jefferson P. Marquis and Brett Steele. The Civil-Military Gap in the United States: Does It Exist, Why, and Does It Matter? Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2007.
The Pentagon Papers: the Defense Department History of United States Decision-making on Vietnam. The Senator Gravel ed. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971-72.
Thomas, Alan B., Clinton F. Berry, and Norman Polar. War in the Gulf. Atlanta: Turner Publishing Inc., 1991.
Tower, John, Edmund S Muskie, and Brent Scowcroft. The Tower Commission Report: the Full Text of the President's Special Review Board. New York: Bantam Books, 1987.
Von Clausewitz, Carl. Vom Kriege: Hinterlassenes Werk. Berlin: Ullstein Buchverlage, 2008.
Warshaw, Shirley. The Co-Presidency of Bush and Cheney. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009.
Weinberger, Casper W. In the Arena: A Memoir of the 20th Century. Washington DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001.
Westmoreland, C. William. A Soldier Reports. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1976.
Woodward, Bob. Plan of Attack. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.
Woodward, Bob. The Commanders. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Woodward, Bob. Veil: the Secret Wars of the CIA, 1981-1987. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.
Yaniv, Avner. Dilemmas of Security: Politics, Strategy and the Israeli Experience in Lebanon. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Lawrence, Mark A. Review of American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War, by David Kaiser. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 31(2), June 2001.
Adas, Jane. "Lisa Hajjar Discusses "the Second Intifada and the Global War on Terror"." The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs 25, no. 3 (2006), pp. 56-58.
Allison, Graham T. and Halperin, Morton H. “Bureaucratic Politics: A Paradigm and Some Policy Implications.” World Politics 24 (1972), pp. 40-79.
Art, Robert J. “Bureaucratic Politics and American Foreign Policy: A Critique.” Policy Sciences 4 (December 1973), pp. 467-490.
Avant, Deborah. "Conflicting Indicators of "Crisis" in American Civil-Military Relations." Armed Forces and Society 24, no. 3 (1998), pp. 375-387.
Bacevich, Andrew. J. "Tradition Abandoned: America's Military in a New Era." National Interest (Summer 1997), pp. 16-25.
Ball, Desmond J. “The Blind Men and the Elephant: A Critique of Bureaucratic Politics Theory.” Australian Outlook 28 (1974), pp. 71-92.
Barnes, James A. "The Imperial Vice Presidency." National Journal 33, no. 11 (Mar 17, 2001), pp. 814-815
Bassford, Christopher, and Edward J. Villacres. “Reclaiming the Clausewitzian Trinity.” Parameters (Autumn 1995), pp. 9-13.
Block, Alan A. "The Origins of Iran-Contra: Lessons from the Durrani Affair." Crime, Law and Social Change 33, no. 1-2 (2000), pp. 53-84.
Boot, Max. "Neocons." Foreign Policy no. 140 (2004), pp. 20-28.
Brands, H. W. "George Bush and the Gulf War of 1991." Presidential Studies Quarterly 34, no. 1 (2004), pp. 113-131.
Burke, John P. "The National Security Advisor and Staff: Transition Challenges." Presidential Studies Quarterly 39, no. 2 (2009), pp. 283-321.
Byers, Michael. "Agreeing to Disagree: Security Council Resolution 1441 and Intentional Ambiguity." Global Governance 10, no. 2 (2004): 165-186.
Byron, John I. “A Response to “Clausewitz: On Weinberger.”Marine Corps Gazette 73(1) (1989), pp. 17-18.
Caldwell, Dan. "Bureaucratic Foreign Policy-Making." The American Behavioral Scientist 21, no. 1 (1977), pp. 87-110.
Callahan, David. "The Honest Broker: Brent Scowcroft in the Bush White House." Foreign Service Journal 69, (1992), pp. 27-32.
Campbell, Kenneth J. “Once Burned, Twice Cautious: Explaining the Weinberger- Powell Doctrine.” Armed Force and Society (Spring 1998), pp. 357-374.
Cassiday, Robert M. "Prophets or Praetorians? The Uptonian Paradox and the Powell Corollary." Parameters 33, no. 3 (2003), pp. 130-143.
Chace, James. "The Wilsonian Moment?" The Wilson Quarterly 25, no. 4 (2001), pp. 34-41.
Clarke, Walter, and Jeffrey Herbst. "Somalia and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Foreign Affairs 75 (1996), pp. 70-85.
Cline, Lawrence E. "Defending the End: Decision Making in Terminating the Persian Gulf War." Comparative Strategy 17, (1998), pp. 363-380.
Cooley, John K. "Pre-War Gulf Diplomacy." Survival 33 (1991), pp. 125-139.
Crook, John R. "Vice President Cheney Applauds Strengthened Presidential Powers." The American Journal of International Law 99, no. 2 (2005), pp. 492-493.
Daniel, T. Rodgers. "American Exceptionalism Revisited." Raritan 24, no. 2 (2004), pp. 21-47.
Dunlap, Jr. Charles J. “Welcome to the Junta: The Erosion of Civilian Control of the U.S. Military.” Wake Forest Law Review, Vol. 29(2)(1994), pp. 341-373.
Fisher, Louis and Gray Adler David. "The War Powers Resolution: Time to Say Goodbye." Political Science Quarterly 113, no. 1 (1998), pp. 1-20.
Garry, Clifford, J. "Bureaucratic Politics." The Journal of American History 77, no. 1 (1990), pp. 161-168.
Goldstein. Joel, K. "The Contemporary Presidency: Cheney, Vice Presidential Power, and the War on Terror." Presidential Studies Quarterly 40, no. 1 (2010), pp. 102-139.
Goldstein. Joel, K. "The Rising Power of the Modern Vice Presidency." Presidential Studies Quarterly 38, no. 3 (2008), pp. 374-389.
Herberg-Rothe, Andreas. “Clausewitz’s Wondrous Trinity as a Coordinate System of War and Violent Conflict. “International Journal of Conflict and Violence, Vol.3 (2) (2009), pp. 204-219.
Hetherington, Marc J. and Michael Nelson. "Anatomy of a Rally Effect: George W. Bush and the War on Terrorism." Political Science & Politics 36, no. 1 (2003), pp. 37-42.
Hoffman, F. G. “The Powell Doctrine–Prudent or Inflexible Response?” Marine Corps Gazette 78(2) (1994), pp. 22-23.
Holland, Lauren. "The U.S. Decision to Launch Operation Desert Storm: A Bureaucratic Politics Analysis." Armed Forces and Society 25, no. 2 (1999), pp. 219-242
Indyk, Martin. “Beyond the Balance of Power: America’s Choice in the Middle East.” National Interest 26 (Winter 1991/92), pp. 33-43.
Kagan, Robert. "A Matter of Record." Foreign Affairs 84, no. 1 (2005), pp 170-173.
Kagan, Robert. "Neocon Nation: Neoconservatism, c. 1776." World Affairs 170, no. 4 (2008), pp. 13-35.
Kagan, Robert and William Kristol. "A National Humiliation." Weekly Standard 6, no. 30 (2001), pp. 11-16.
Kane, John. "American Values or Human Rights? U.S. Foreign Policy and the Fractured Myth of Virtuous Power." Presidential Studies Quarterly 33, no. 4 (2003), pp. 772-800.
Kohn, Richard H. “The Crisis in Military-Civilian Relations.” National Interest (Spring 1994), pp. 3-17.
Krasner, Stephen D. “Are Bureaucracies Important? Or Allison Wonderland.” Foreign Policy 7 (Summer 1972), pp. 159-179.
Krueger, Kimbra. "Internal Struggle over U.S. Foreign Policy toward Central America: An Analysis of the Reagan Era." Presidential Studies Quarterly 26, no. 4 (1996), pp. 1034-1046.
LaFeber, Walter. “The Rise and Fall of Colin Powell and the Powell Doctrine.” Political Science Quarterly 124(1) (2009), 71-93.
Laipson, Ellen. "The Robb-Silberman Report, Intelligence, and Nonproliferation." Arms Control Today 35, no. 5 (2005), pp. 20-23.
Levin, Carl, and Henry Hyde. "The Iran-Contra Pardons." ABA Journal 79, (1993), pp. 44-54.
Locher, James R. I. "Has it Worked? The Goldwater-Nichols Reorganization Act." Naval War College Review 54, no. 4 (2001), pp. 95-115.
McCarthy, Dennis M. “Does the Pentagon Still Believe in the Abrams Doctrine?” The Officer 82, no. 1 (2006), pp. 40-42.
Millett, Allan R. "On Strategy: The Vietnam War in Context." Marine Corps Gazette 66, no. 8 (1982), pp. 75-76.
Mueller, John E. "Presidential Popularity from Truman to Johnson." The American Political Science Review, Vol. 64 (March 1970). pp. 18-34.
Penmar, Karen. “Inflation Stages a Comeback.” Business Week, Apr. 3, 1989.
Perlmutter, Amos. "The Presidential Political Center and Foreign Policy: A Critique of the Revisionist and Bureaucratic-Political Orientations." World Politics 27 (October 1974), pp. 87-106.
Petraeus, David H. "Lessons of History and Lessons of Vietnam." Parameters 40, no. 4 (Oct, 2010), pp. 48-61.
Pfiffner, James P. "Decision Making in the Bush White House." Presidential Studies Quarterly 39, no. 2 (2009), pp. 363-384.
Pfiffner, James P. "Did President Bush Mislead the Country in His Arguments for War with Iraq?" Presidential Studies Quarterly 34, no. 1 (2004), pp. 25-46.
Pious, Richard M. "The Limits of Rational Choice: Bush and Clinton Budget Summitry." Presidential Studies Quarterly 29, no. 3 (1999), pp. 617-637.
Pomper, Miles A., Paul Kerr, and Daryl G. Kimball. "Getting it Right the Next Time: An Interview with Hans Blix." Arms Control Today 34, no. 6 (2004), pp. 14-17.
Powell, Colin L. "U.S. Forces: Challenges Ahead." Foreign Affairs 71 (1993), pp. 32-45.
Silverstein, Gordon. "The Law: Bush, Cheney, and the Separation of Powers: A Lasting Legal Legacy?" Presidential Studies Quarterly 39, no. 4 (2009), pp. 878-895
Stevenson, Charles A. "The Evolving Clinton Doctrine on the Use of Force." Armed Forces and Society 22 (1996), pp. 511-535.
Thelwell, Ekwueme Michael. "He Coulda Bin a Contendah: The Curious, Unprecedented, Enigmatic Political Career of General Colin L. Powell, U.S.A. Ret." The Massachusetts Review 37, no. 4 (1996), pp. 581-615
Tucker, Robert. "The Triumph of Wilsonianism?" World Policy Journal 10, no. 4 (1993), pp. 83-89.
Weigley, Russell F. "The American Military and the Principle of Civilian Control from McClellan to Powell." The Journal of Military History 57, no. 5 (1993), pp. 27-59.
White, Donald W. "Mutable Destiny." Harvard International Review 20, no. 1 (97, 1998), pp. 42-47.
Zarefsky, David. "Making the Case for War: Colin Powell at the United Nations." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 10, no. 2 (2007), pp. 275-302.
Theses / Dissertations
Handy, Kristina. "Civilian Control, Good Advice and Service Management: Three Elements of United States Civil-Military Relations Affected by the Goldwater-Nichols Defense Reorganization Act." Ph.D. Diss., University of Maryland, College Park, 2005.
Hayden, Craig Arthur. "The Vulcan Rhetoric of Crisis: Presidential Advisors and the War in Iraq." Ph.D. Diss., University of Southern California, 2007.
Oakley, Cigi. "Colin Powell: An African American Military and Political Leader Who Transcended the Racial Barriers of America." Ph.D. Diss., Pepperdine University, 2010.
Petraeus, David H. "The American Military and the Lessons of Vietnam: A Study of Military Influence and the Use of Force in the Post-Vietnam Era." Ph.D. Diss., Princeton University, 1987.
Thomas, Kehrin Kercher. "Colin Powell's 2000 Keynote Address: Compassionate Conservatism in an Age of Cynicism." MA. Thesis, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2004.