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中文論文名稱 運用透明度、模糊度和不可譯性為判準 以分析第一語言和第二語言之慣用語
英文論文名稱 The Use of Transparency, Opaqueness, and Intranslatability as Criteria in Analyzing L1 and L2 Idioms
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 陳蓉娟
研究生英文姓名 Jung Chuan Chen
學號 898110068
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-06-22
論文頁數 261頁
口試委員 指導教授-林春仲
委員-陳純音
委員-杜德倫
委員-蘇秀妹
委員-林怡弟
中文關鍵字 慣用語理解  透明度  模糊度  不可譯性 
英文關鍵字 idiom comprehension  transparency  opaqueness  intranslatability 
學科別分類
中文摘要 論文提要內容:
本研究旨在探討運用三項判準(透明度、模糊度和不可譯性)在慣用語分析上的功用。共有一百六十七位台灣大學生參與本研究。參與者依照全民英檢測驗的分數分成兩組以測試慣用語理解,及不可譯的慣用語翻譯。本研究結果顯示,學習者之慣用語理解能力與其英文程度有正相關性。在兩類慣用語的理解能力表現上,受測者在透明的慣用語表現優於模糊的慣用語。再進一步分析兩類模糊的慣用語後發現,受測者在可譯的慣用語表現優於不可譯的慣用語。此外,本研究發現受測者在理解不可譯的慣用語時常被第一語言的錯誤翻譯所誤導,可見不可譯的慣用語對學習者而言較為困難,所以需要英語教師及學生多加注意。本文最後提出有關慣用語的教學建議。


英文摘要 Abstract:
The present study mainly aims to investigate the function of three criteria (transparency, opaqueness, and intranslatability) on idiom analysis. A total of one hundred and sixty-seven college students participated in the study. The students were divided into two groups according to their scores in General English Proficiency Test. The main research instruments employed in the study included an idiom comprehension test and two idiom translation tests. The idioms tested in the present study were classified into two types: transparent idioms and opaque idioms. Then, opaque idioms were further classified into two types: translatable opaque idioms and intranslatable opaque idioms. The results of the study revealed that there was a positive relationship between learners’ English proficiency and their competence of idiom comprehension. Learners overall performed significantly better on the transparent idioms than the opaque idioms on the idiom comprehension test. Moreover, learners performed significantly better on the translatable opaque idioms than the intranslatable opaque idioms. In addition, the fact that learners were frequently misled by mistranslation of intranslatable idioms revealed that intranslatable idioms pose more difficulties for learners. Thus, this type of idiom deserves more attention from teachers and learners. Pedagogical implications were also proposed.
論文目次 Table of Contents

Acknowledgements……… ……………………………………………………….… i
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………………….….iii
English Abstract………………………………………………………………….…. iv
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………….…….v
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………….…...ix
Chapter One Introduction……..……………………………………….….… …..1
1.1 Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………....……3
1.2 Purpose of the Study………………………………………………………...……5
1.3 Research Questions………………………………………………………..….…..6
1.4 Definitions of Terms………………………………………………………...…….6
1.4.1 Cross-linguistic Influence……………………………………….….…..6
1.4.2 Transparency……….…………………………………………..…….…7
1.4.3 Opaqueness………………………………………………… ……….…7
1.4.4 Intranslatability……………………………………………. …… ….…7
1.5 Significance of the Study…………………………………………….…………...8
1.6 Organization of the Dissertation………………………………………………….9
Chapter Two Review of the Literature …………………………………..……..11
2.1 Contrastive Analysis………..……………………………………….…………...11
2.2 Transfer…………………………………………………………….….….……...14
2.2.1 Previous Studies of Transfer in the Acquisition of Idioms………………...15
2.3 Crosslinguistic Influence……………………………………………….………..21
2.4 Idioms………………………………………………………….……….………...25
2.4.1 The Definition of Idioms….…………………………………………….…25
2.4.2 The Classification of Idioms………………………………………………26
2.4.2.1 Phrasal Verbs……………………………………………………...32
2.4.3 The Structural Patterns of Idioms………………………………………….35
2.5 Transparency and Opaqueness…………………………………………………...37
2.5.1 Transparency……………………………………………………………….37
2.5.2 Opaqueness…………………………………………………………………42
2.5.3 Related Studies on Transparency…………………………………………..44
2.5.3.1 Semantic Transparency on Idiom Comprehension………………..44
2.5.3.2 Idiom Transparency and Idiom Familiarity……………………….47
2.5.3.3 Idiom Transparency Intuition……………………………………...57
2.6 Translatability and Intranslatability…………….……………………………..…64
2.6.1 Translatability……………………………………………………………...64
2.6.2 Intranslatability………………………………………………………….…68
2.6.3 Related Studies on Intranslatability…..………………….....……………...79
2.7 Theoretical Framework of the Study…………………………………………..…83
Chapter Three Methodology…………………………..........................................85
3.1 Participants…………………………………………………………………….…85
3.2 Instruments………………………………………………………………..……...86

3.2.1 General English Proficiency Test: Intermediate Level……………….……87
3.2.2 The Selection of Idioms………………………………………..…………..88
3.2.3 The Idiom Comprehension Test………………………………… …..…….96
3.2.4 Idiom Translation Test – Part I & Part II..…………………………………97
3.3 Data Collection….………………………………………………………………100
3.3.1 Scoring…………………………………………...……………….………100
3.4 Data Analysis………………………………………………………..………….102

3.5 Summary………………………………...……………………………………...103
Chapter Four Results …………………………………………………………...105
4.1 Learners’ English Proficiency vs. Idiom Comprehension ……………………...105
4.2 Learners’ Performance on the Two Types of Idioms…...…………………….....106
4.2.1 Learners’ Performance on Transparent Idioms…………………………...109
4.3 Learners’ Performance on the Two Subtypes of Opaque Idioms……………….112
4.3.1 Learners’ Performance on Translatable Opaque Idioms…………………..114
4.3.2 Learners’ Performance on Intranslatable Opaque Idioms……..………….117
4.4 Learners’ Performance on the Two Types of Idioms under Three Structures......121
4.4.1 Subsection A: Results of the Idiom Structure of V+Adj+N………………121
4.4.2 Subsection B: Results of the Idiom Structure of N+N……………………123
4.4.3 Subsection C: Results of the Idiom Structure of Prep+Adj+N…………...125
4.5 Learners’ Performance on the Idiom Translation Test – Part I and Part II……...127
4.5.1 Learners’ Performance on the Idiom Translation Test – Part II…………..128
4.6 Major Findings…………………………………………………………………132
Chapter Five Discussion ……………………………………………………… .137
5.1 Learners’ English Proficiency and Idiom Comprehension Competence……….137
5.2 Learners’ Competence in the Two Types of Idioms………………………….....139
5.2.1 Learners’ Competence in Transparent Idioms………………………….....140
5.3 Learners’ Competence in the Two Subtypes of Opaque Idioms.…………….....143
5.3.1 Learners’ Competence in Translatable Opaque Idioms…………………...147
5.3.2 Learners’ Competence in Intranslatable Opaque Idioms……...………….152
5.4 Learners’ Competence in the Two Types of Idioms under Three Structures...…157
5.4.1 Subsection A: Findings of the Idiom Structure of V+Adj+N…………….157
5.4.2 Subsection B: Findings of the Idiom Structure of N+N………………….158

5.4.3 Subsection C: Findings of the Idiom Structure of Prep+Adj+N…………158
5.5 Learners’ Competence in the Idiom Translation Test – Part I and Part II……....159
5.5.1 Learners’ Competence in the Idiom Translation Test – Part II…………....160
Chapter Six Conclusions ………………………………………………………..165
6.1 Pedagogical Implications…………..…………………………………………...172
6.2 Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………….…..177
6.3 Recommendations for Further Research…………………………………….….179
References………………………………………………………………………….181
Appendices
Appendix A: Transparent Idioms........................199
Appendix B: Translatable Opaque Idioms………………………………………….208
Appendix C: Intranslatable Opaque Idioms…………………………...…................212
Appendix D: Test Bank of Idiom Translation Test……………..……………...…...222
Appendix E: Idiom Comprehension Test...................................................................227
Appendix F: Idiom Comprehension Test (Answer Key)………………………...…236
Appendix G: Idiom Translation Test – Part I……………………………………….244
Appendix H: Idiom Translation Test – Part I (Answer Key)……………………….246
Appendix I: Idiom Translation Test – Part II…...…………………………………..248.
Appendix J: Idiom Translation Test – Part II (Answer Key)……………….............254
Appendix K: The Structural Patterns of Idioms……...………………………….….260


List of Tables

Table 3.1 Structures of Verbal Idioms………………………………………………92

Table 3.2 Structures of Nominal Idioms…………………………………………….93

Table 3.3 Structures of Adjectival Idioms…………………………………………..93

Table 3.4 Structures of Adverbial Idioms…………………………………………...93

Table 3.5 Examples of Verbal Idioms Classified into Three Types…………….……94

Table 3.6 Examples of Non-verbal Idioms Classified into Three Types……….……95

Table 4.1 Correlation between Learners’ GEPT Scores and Their Idiom Comprehension Scores…………………………………………………..106

Table 4.2 Mean Scores of the Two Types of Idioms………………………………..107

Table 4.3 Independent-sample t-Test for Significance of the Performance of Two
Groups on Two Types of Idioms…………………………………………108

Table 4.4 Paired-sample t-Test for The Two Types of Idioms………………………109

Table 4.5 The Transparent Idioms (with Overall Accuracy Scores), Listed in
Order of Increasing Difficulty for All Learners…..………………………..111

Table 4.6 Mean Scores of the Two Subtypes of Opaque Idioms……………………113

Table 4.7 Independent-sample t-Test for Significance of the Performance of
Two Groups on the Two Subtypes of Opaque Idioms……… ………….…113

Table 4.8 Paired-sample t-Test for The Two Subtypes of Opaque Idioms………….114

Table 4.9 The Translatable Opaque Idioms (with Overall Accuracy Scores),
Listed in Order of Increasing Difficulty for All Learners………………..117

Table 4.10 The Intranslatable Opaque Idioms (with Overall Accuracy Scores),
Listed in Order of Increasing Difficulty for All Learners……...……….120

Table 4.11 Mean Scores of the Two Types of Idioms under the structure of
V+Adj+N…………………………………………………………….…122

Table 4.12 Paired-sample t-Test for The Two Types of Idioms under the Structure
of V+Adj+N…………………………………….……………………....123

Table 4.13 Mean Scores of the Two Types of Idioms under the Structure of
N+N............................................................................................................123

Table 4.14 Paired-sample t-Test for The Two Types of Idioms under the Structure
of N+N…………………………………………………………………...124

Table 4.15 Mean Scores of the Two Types of Idioms under the Structure of
Prep+Adj +N……………………………………………………………..125

Table 4.16 Paired-sample t-Test for The Two Types of Idioms under the Structure
of Prep+Adj+N……………………………………………………….…..126

Table 4.17 Learners’ Performance on the Idiom Translation Test – Part I……….....127

Table 4.18 Learners’ Performance on the Idiom Translation Test – Part II…………128

Table 4.19 Paired-sample t-Test for the Idiom Translation Test – Part I and Part II..128

Table 4.20 The 50 Idioms Tested in the Idiom Translation Test – Part II, Listed in Order of Increasing Difficulty for All Learners……………………….131
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