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系統識別號 U0002-0208201117190200
中文論文名稱 俄羅斯與芬蘭經貿關係之研究
英文論文名稱 Study of Economic and Trade Relations between Russia and Finland
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 俄羅斯研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Slavic Studies
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 林馥儀
研究生英文姓名 Fu-Yi Lin
學號 696320026
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-06-09
論文頁數 118頁
口試委員 指導教授-魏百谷
指導教授-彼薩列夫
委員-林健次
委員-林湘義
中文關鍵字 俄羅斯  芬蘭  經貿合作  投資 
英文關鍵字 Russia  Finland  economic and trade relations  investment 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 由於芬蘭與俄羅斯相鄰,故兩國是因歷史淵源而展開其關係,芬蘭直到1917年才脫離俄羅斯獨立。之後,蘇聯與芬蘭分別在1939和1941年爆發戰爭,因芬蘭戰敗後割地賠款,並與蘇聯簽署莫斯科條約。1991年蘇聯瓦解後,俄羅斯與芬蘭才以對等的合作,連繫雙方的關係。雙方在歷史與地緣因素方面,芬蘭因需依賴俄羅斯的經濟,而與俄羅斯建立關係是必要的。

俄羅斯與芬蘭從蘇聯時期就有經貿往來,歷經1991年蘇聯解體與芬蘭於1995年加入歐盟後,雙邊關係產生變化,亦影響到雙邊貿易、投資與經貿合作。本文研究目的以俄羅斯與芬蘭之間的貿易、投資、經貿合作面向,探討雙方的經貿關係是如何發展進行,再進而分析雙方的經貿關係之變化。藉由研究分析,本論文可歸納出四項研究發現:一、俄羅斯與芬蘭關係之轉變可由歷史因素來分析,分析蘇聯時期與蘇聯解體之後的俄芬歷史淵源與過程,以俄芬關係為主軸來研析其形成的因素,進而探討雙方因政治與軍事力量而產生了芬蘭對俄羅斯的中立政策。然而,現今俄羅斯與芬蘭的關係跟蘇聯時期相異,因藉此對兩國經貿和政治往來作出全面性的分析。二、俄羅斯與芬蘭的貿易是以貿易金額、進出口產品及結構為主軸。俄芬的貿易可由三個階段來看,分別為1991年蘇聯解體,芬蘭於1995年成為歐盟國之一,及芬蘭在1997年之後與北約共同處理國際事務。由上述三個階段來分析雙邊貿易的特性為何,並加以比較歸納。三、俄羅斯與芬蘭的投資部分,因芬蘭依賴俄羅斯的經濟,芬蘭許多企業對俄羅斯投資較多。該部分以投資額與產業為主,並探討雙邊投資之間的問題。四、俄羅斯與芬蘭之間的經貿往來,是兩國促進彼此之間的關係手段之一,而俄羅斯與芬蘭的經貿合作範圍,包含能源、科技、觀光和過境運輸等項。俄羅斯與芬蘭的貿易、投資與經貿合作互動,除了增進兩國之間的交流與利益之外,在這些過程中俄芬有發生經貿問題的存在性。本文研究結果認為芬蘭的對外政策,會對俄芬經貿關係有所影響。對芬蘭來說,與俄羅斯經貿往來是不可避免的趨勢,要如何與俄羅斯維持往來,是芬蘭在制定對俄政策時所須考量的課題。
英文摘要 Their relationship was originated in its history, because Finland and Russia are in the neighborhood. In the period of the Soviet Union, even though Finland was independent from Russia in 1917, the Soviet Union used the strong power of military to control Finland. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, in order to connect the relation, Russia and Finland focus on equal cooperation. From Finland’s standpoint, it values the cooperation with Russia due to the aspects of history and geography, so Finland depends on cooperation with Russia.
The thesis is an analysis of trade, investment and economic and trade cooperation between Russia and Finland, and the objective of the study analyzes what the bilateral economic and trade relations are. By means of the study, this study reached the following main points. First of all, analyzing Russia and Finland’s relations when it started by the histories of them. Because of the Soviet Union’s strong influence of politic and military, Finland had the neutral policies toward it during the period of Soviet Union. However, after the collapse of USSR, their relationship was distinct from the time during Soviet period. Second, discussing the trade between Russia and Finland, and analyzing their trade of the outcome, the goods and structure of export and import. There are two stages of their bilateral trade, and the timing can be viewed as the collapse of Soviet Union, and Finland was a member of EU in 1995. Thus, the aim of their trade are analyzed what the characteristics of bilateral trade are, and to compare and conclude them from two stages. Third, discussing outcome and industry of investment between Russia and Finland. Like their bilateral trade, Finland depends on investing to Russia as well. Many Finland’s enterprises invest heavily to Russia. On the other hand, Russia just invests energy enterprises with Finland. There are some problems between their investments. Therefore, another point is discussed what the obstacles between their investment. Finally, by promoting their relations, the bilateral economic and trade cooperation is the important way for Russia and Finland. Their economic and trade cooperation is quite different from their trade and investment, so it meant energy, technology, tourism and transit traffic cooperation between Russia and Finland. Despite the trade, investment and economies and trade relations of Russia and Finland are strengthened the relations for their cooperation, there are some problems between them. The conclusion of thesis as Finland’s policy toward Russia has impact on their bilateral relations. There is an inevitable tendency as their relations, and the future of their economic and trade relations interweave for Finland.
論文目次 目  次
第壹章 緒論……………………………………………………………......1
第一節 研究動機與目的…………………………………………….….....1
第二節 文獻述評………………………………………………………......3
第三節 研究方法與途徑…………………………………………….…….7
第四節 研究範圍與限制…………………………………………………11
第五節 研究架構與章節安排………………………………………....…12
第貳章 俄羅斯與芬蘭關係…………………………………………15
第一節 俄國與芬蘭的歷史概述…………………………………………15
第二節 蘇聯時期的兩國關係……………………………………….…...20
第三節 俄羅斯與芬蘭的關係……………………………………….…...27
第參章 俄羅斯與芬蘭的貿易……………………………………...33
第一節 俄芬貿易量演變……………………………………………….....33
第二節 俄芬貿易結構分析…………………………………………….....41
第三節 俄芬貿易之特性………………………………………………….53
第肆章 俄羅斯與芬蘭的投資……………………………………...59
第一節 雙邊投資額變化……………………………………………….....59
第二節 雙邊投資之產業分析………………………………………….....65
第三節 影響雙邊投資之因素………………………………………….....75
第伍章 俄羅斯與芬蘭的經貿合作………………………….…....81
第一節 兩國經貿合作架構……………………………………….............81
第二節 兩國經貿合作模式…………………………………………….....87
第三節 兩國經貿合作之挑戰………………………………………...... ..94
第陸章 結論………………………………………………………………..99
第一節 研究發現………………………………………..............................99
第二節 後續研究建議…………………………………………...….........105
參考文獻……………………………………………………………….……..107



表  次 
表3-1 俄羅斯對外貿易的出口與進口額……………………………………...36
表3-2 俄羅斯對芬蘭出口額………………………………………...................36
表3-3 俄羅斯自芬蘭進口額…………………………………………………...38
表3-4 蘇聯自芬蘭進口商品比重……………………..……………………….42
表3-5 蘇聯對芬蘭出口商品比重……………...………………………………43
表3-6 俄羅斯對外出口的商品量……………………………………………...48
表3-7 俄羅斯對外進口的商品量……………………………………………...48
表3-8 芬蘭對俄羅斯出口的主要商品………………………………………...51
表3-9 芬蘭自俄羅斯進口的主要商品………………………………………...52
表4-1 俄羅斯的外資引進………………………………………………...……60
表4-2 俄羅斯的外資流量……………………………………………...………61
表4-3 俄羅斯對芬蘭的投資額……………………………………………...…61
表4-4 芬蘭對俄羅斯的投資額……………………………………………...…64
表4-5 俄羅斯投資產業的活動比重……………………………….......................66
表4-6 2001-2005年芬蘭對外投資的產業額………………………………….67
表4-7 2006-2010年芬蘭對外投資的產業額…………………………….........68

圖  次
圖1-1 研究架構圖……………………………………………………….…….13
圖3-1 俄羅斯對芬蘭出口值圖…………………………………………….….37
圖3-2 俄羅斯自芬蘭進口值圖………………………………………………..38
圖3-3 俄羅斯與芬蘭的貿易圖……………………………………….……….47
圖4-1 俄羅斯對芬蘭的投資額圖……………………………………………..62
圖4-2 芬蘭對俄羅斯的投資額圖……………………………………………..64
參考文獻 參考文獻
中文部分
一、書籍
尹慶耀(1994),蘇維埃帝國的消亡,台北:五南圖書。
王傳照(2004),地緣政府與國家安全,台北:幼獅文化。
吳玉山(1997),抗衡或扈從-兩岸關係新詮:從蘇聯看台灣與大陸間的關係,台北:正中書局。
沈默(1967),地緣政治,台北:文和印刷公司。
施正鋒(2004),歐盟的深化與廣化,台北:前衛出版社。
施正鋒(2010),當代芬蘭民主政治,台北:台灣國際研究學會。
張亞中(2008),小國崛起:轉捩點上的關鍵抉擇,台北:聯經出版事業有限公司。
鈕先鐘(1995),西方戰略思想史,台北:麥田出版有限公司。
經濟部投資業務處(2006),俄羅斯投資環境簡介,台北:經濟部。
經濟部投資業務處(2007),芬蘭投資環境簡介,台北:經濟部。
經濟部投資業務處(2008),俄羅斯投資環境簡介,台北:經濟部。
經濟部投資業務處(2009),芬蘭投資環境簡介,台北:經濟部。
經濟部投資業務處(2010),芬蘭投資環境簡介,台北:經濟部。
劉大和(2000),APEC議題研究精選系列3 創新與科技,台北:APEC研究中心。
劉從德(2010),地緣政治學導論,北京:中國人民大學出版社。
蘇秀法(1987),「芬蘭化」和「丹麥化」陰影下的歐洲,台北:正中書局。

二、期刊
王躍生、楊力(2010),「歐盟國家對俄羅斯的直接投資問題」,俄羅斯中亞東歐市場,第12期,頁29-36。
呂律(1977),「蘇俄六十年來經濟政策的演變」,問題與研究,第16卷,第9期,頁15-23。
馮達(1977),「蘇俄近十年來的對外貿易」,問題與研究,第16卷,第9期,頁24-38。
劉絕萍(2001),「俄羅斯:投資環境、存在問題、投資前景」,俄羅斯研究,第18卷,第1期,頁21-30。
蕭真美(1977),「『芬蘭化』模式下的芬蘭」,問題與研究,第16卷,第7期,頁69-73。
嚴震生(1995),「『芬蘭化』的歷史經驗與兩岸關係發展之比較」,問題與研究,第34卷,第9期,頁73-83。
羅英杰(2005),「歐盟國家對俄羅斯投資淺析」,俄羅斯研究,第3期,頁43-48。

三、學位論文
吳岱璟(2002),不對稱外交戰略與小國外交政策之研究:以芬蘭化為例,淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文。
徐元勝(1984),北歐均勢,淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文。

四、網站資料
「芬蘭海關2008年芬蘭對外貿易統計」,經濟部國貿局,
,(2010/9/3)。
「俄芬兩國總統展望2010年合作前景」,俄新網,
,(2010/10/3)。
「俄儲蓄銀行行長:腐敗是全球向俄羅斯投資的重要障礙」,俄新網,
, (2011/30)。
「能源價格推動俄羅斯北極項目」,芬蘭投資網中文版(Invest in Finland),
,(2011/1/23)。
「普京抵達赫爾辛基開始工作訪問」,俄新網,
, (2010/12/17)。

英文部分
一、官方資料
“Action Plan for Finnish-Russian Neighbouring Area Cooperation up to the Year 2009,” ,(2011/2/27)..
“Exports to Russia by Products 2009(1-9) (Share and change from previous year) (%),” Finnish Customs, , (2010/1/6).
“Export and Import of the Russian Federation,” Russian Federal State Statistics Service, , (2011/3/24).
“Exports to Russia by Products 2008 (Share and change from previous year) (%),” Finnish Customs, , (2009/4/5).
“External Trade in Services of the Russian Federation by Main Partner Countries in 2002-2008,” The Central Bank of the Russian federation, , (2008/12/1).
“Evaluation Report Finnish-Russian Neighbouring Area Cooperation 2004-2009,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland,
, p.11, (2011/1/8).
“Finland’s Competence, Openness and Renewability,” Prime Minister’s Office (Finland), , p.86. (2011/3/2).
“Finland Security and Defence Policy 2009,” Prime Minster’s Office (Finland), , (2010/5/7).
“Finnish Security and Defence Policy 2010,” Prime Minster’s Office (Finland), (2011/1/3).
“Finland’s Foreign and Security Policy,” Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, , 2006, (2010/12/11).
“Finnish-Russian Intergovernmental Economic Commission to Convene in St. Petersburg Chaired by Minister Väyrynen and Deputy Prime Minister Ivanov,” Finnish Government, , (2011/3/5).
“Finnish-Russian Intergovernmental Commission for Economic Cooperation Meets in Helsinki Led by Ministers Väyrynen and Nabiullina,” Government of Finland, , (2010/3/2).
“Finnish Direct Investment abroad, (Flow by country),” Bank of Finland, , (2011/2/11).
“Foreign Direct Investment in Finland,” Bank of Finland, , (2010/11/1).
“Foreign Direct Investment in Finland, (Stock by country),” Bank of Finland, , (2011/2/11).
“Foreign Direct Investment in Finland, (Flow by country),” Bank of Finland, , (2011/2/11).
“Foreign Trade 2000, Finnish Trade in Figures,” Finnish Customs, , (2011/3/12).
“Foreign Trade 2001, Finnish Trade in Figures,” Finnish Customs, , (2011/3/12).
“Foreign Trade 2002, Finnish Trade in Figures,” Finnish Customs, , (2011/3/12).
“Foreign Trade 2003, Finnish Trade in Figures,” Finnish Customs, , (2011/3/12).
“Foreign Trade 2004, Finnish Trade in Figures,” Finnish Customs, , (2011/3/12).
“Foreign Trade 2005, Finnish Trade in Figures,” Finnish Customs, , (2011/3/12)
“Foreign Trade 2006, Finnish Trade in Figures,” Finnish Customs, , (2011/3/12).
“Foreign Trade 2007 Finnish Trade in Figures,” Finnish Customs, , (2011/3/12).
“Foreign Trade 2008, Finnish Trade in Figures,” Finnish Customs, , (2011/3/12).
“Foreign Trade 2009 Finnish Trade in Figures,” Finnish Customs, , (2011/3/12).
“Finnish Direct Investment abroad,” Bank of Finland, , (2010/11/1).
“Foreign Trade,” Statistics Finland,
, (2009/11/2)
“Foreign Trade of the Russian Federation with far abroad Countries,” Russian Federal State Statistics Service, , (2010//6/20).
“Foreign Portfolio Investment Holdings of the Russian Federation, by Country, 2005,2006 (Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey Data),” The Central Bank of the Russian federation, , (2008/12/1)
“Imports, Exports and Trade Balance, 1990-2008,” Finnish Customs, , (2009/12/13).
“Imports by countries of consignment, 2009/9,” Finnish Customs, < http://www.tulli.fi/en/finnish_customs/statistics/statistics/country/liitteet_lahmaa/Lahmaa09_09.xls> (2009/11/30).
“Imports by countries of consignment, 2009/9,” Finnish Customs,Finnish Customs, Imports by countries of consignment, 2009/8 (2009/11/30).
“Imports by countries of consignment, 2009/7,” Finnish Customs, (2009/11/30).
“Imports by countries of consignment, 2009/6,” Finnish Customs, (2009/11/30).
“Imports by countries of consignment, 2009/5,” Finnish Customs, (2009/11/30).
“Imports by countries of consignment, 2009/4,” Finnish Customs, (2009/11/30).
“Imports by countries of consignment, 2009/3,” Finnish Customs, (2009/11/30).
“Imports by countries of consignment, 2009/2,” Finnish Customs, (2009/11/30).
“Imports by countries of consignment, 2009/1,” Finnish Customs, (2009/11/30).
“Imports and exports by countries according to magnitude; imports by countries of origin, exports by countries of destination, 2009/10,” Finnish Customs, (2009/12/4).
“Imports and exports by countries according to magnitude; imports by countries of origin, exports by countries of destination, 2009/9,” Finnish Customs, (2009/12/4).
“Imports and exports by countries according to magnitude; imports by countries of origin, exports by countries of destination, 2009/8,” Finnish Customs, (2009/12/4).
“Imports and exports by countries according to magnitude; imports by countries of origin, exports by countries of destination, 2009/7,” Finnish Customs, (2009/12/4).
“Imports and exports by countries according to magnitude; imports by countries of origin, exports by countries of destination, 2009/6,” Finnish Customs, (2009/11/30).
“Imports and exports by countries according to magnitude; imports by countries of origin, exports by countries of destination, 2009/5,” Finnish Customs, (2009/12/4).
“Imports and exports by countries according to magnitude; imports by countries of origin, exports by countries of destination, 2009/4,” Finnish Customs, (2009/12/4).
“Imports and exports by countries according to magnitude; imports by countries of origin, exports by countries of destination, 2009/3,” Finnish Customs, (2009/12/4).
“Imports and exports by countries according to magnitude; imports by countries of origin, exports by countries of destination, 2009/2,” Finnish Customs, (2009/12/4).
“Imports and exports by countries according to magnitude; imports by countries of origin, exports by countries of destination, 2009/1,” Finnish Customs, (2009/12/4).
“Imports from Russia by Products 2009(1-9) (Share and change from previous year) (%),” Finnish Customs,
, (2010/1/6).
“Imports from Russia by Products 2008 (Share and change from previous year) (%),” Finnish Customs, , (2009/4/5).
“Monthly Imports of Wood from Russia 2004-2008; Sitc 24,” Finnish Customs,
, (2009/4/5).
“Monthly Exports to Russia Germany and Sweden 2005-2009(1-9),” Finnish Customs,
, (2010/1/6).
“Monthly Imports to Russia Germany and Sweden 2005-2009(1-9),” Finnish Customs,
, (2010/1/6).
“NATO Member Countries,” North Atlantic Treaty Organization, http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/nato_countries.htm, 2009, (2011/2/24).
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO Member Countries, , 2009, (2011/2/24).
“Russian-Finnish Relations,” Government of Finland, , (2010/3/2).
“Russia Action Plan,” Government of Finland,
, (2009/7/16).
“Russia Federation, Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) Overview,” World Investment Report 2010,, (2010/10/18)
“Russian federation:Inward direct Investments in Non-banking Corporations, by Geographical Allocation,” The Central Bank of Russia, , (2010/11/6).
“Speech at Inauguration Ceremony as President of Russia,” , (2008/12/16).
“Structure of Investment in Fixed Capital by Kinds of Economic Activities,” Russian Federal State Statistics Service, , (2010/12/26).
“Trade Between Finland and Soviet Union 1983-90 and Between Finland and Russia 1991-2008,” Finnish Customs, , (2009/4/5).
“The Development of the Trade of EU Countries with Certain Trading Partners 2007-2008(1-10), % (Source:Eurostat),” Finnish Customs,
, (2009/6/30).
“The Development of Trade in Certain Countries November 2008/2007, Change % (Source:Eurostat and National Statistics),” Finnish Customs,
, (2009/6/30).
“The Increase of Exports in Certain EU Countries 2007-2008(1-10), % (Source:Eurostat),” Finnish Customs,
, (2009/6/30).
“The Main Countries of Mobile Phone Export in 2008(million pieces),” Finnish Customs,
, (2009/6/30)
“Transports of Foreign Trade by Countries, January-December 2009,” Finnish Customs, , (2010/9/16).

二、書籍
Allison, Roy. (1985), Finland’s Relations with the Soviet Union, 1944-84, London:Macmillan.
Apunen, Osmo. (1977), “Geographic and Political Factors in Finland’s Relations with the Soviet Union, ” Yearbook of Finnish Foreign Policy 1977, Helsinki:Finnish Institute of International Affairs.
Bzhilianskaya, Liudmila and Vladimir Pripisnov (1999), “Foreign Direct Investment in Contemporary Russia:A General View,” in David Dyker (ed.), Foreign Direct Investment and Technology Transfer in the Former Soviet Union, Cheltenham:Edeard Elgar Publishing Ltd, pp.52-63.
Daniel, Austin. (1996), Finland as a Gateway to Russia: Issues in European Security, Aldershot:Avebury.
Evens, Graham and Jeffrey Newnham. (1990), The Dictionary of World Politics, New York:Harvester Wheathsheaf.
Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. (2004), From Support to Partnership-Finland’s Strategy for Cooperation in Its Neighbourhood Areas, Helsinki:Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.
Mouritzen, Hans. (1998), Lessons for Alliance Theory, Bordering Russia:Theory and Prospects for Europe’s Baltic Rim, London:Ashgate.
Ollus, Simon-Erik and Simola Heli. (2006), Russia in the Finnish Economy, Helesinki: Sitra.
Ollus, Simon-Erik. (2004), Why They, Why Not We? An Analysis of the Competitiveness of Finland and Russia, Helsinki: Sitra.
Singleton, Fred. (1989), A Short History of Finland, New York:Cambridge University.
Trovalds, Nils and Simon-Erik Ollus. (2006), From Trade to Partnership-Finland’s Economic Strategy for Russia, Helsinki: Sitra.
Wuorinen, John H. (1966), A History of Finland, New York:Columbia University.
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