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系統識別號 U0002-0208200600581300
中文論文名稱 種族優待措施:美國政策困境
英文論文名稱 Affirmative Action: An American Policy Dilemma
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 方淑娟
研究生英文姓名 Shu-Chuan Fang
學號 691220049
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-06-09
論文頁數 120頁
口試委員 指導教授-崔馬吉
委員-黃介正
委員-趙國材
中文關鍵字 種族優待措施 
英文關鍵字 affirmative action 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 「種族優待措施」係為矯正美國歷史上的種族歧視問題,而諭令聯邦機關在僱用有色人種時應採取積極的補償措施,以改善黑人困境。之後其概念漸漸擴張,泛指美國政府為彌補少數族裔或弱勢族群過去所遭受的歧視傷害,而在求職或申請入學時提供特別優惠措施,以提高其競爭力之政策。本論文旨在探討優惠待遇在美國高等教育、就業和勞動市場等領域內的運作、它所造成的結果以及此項措施有無繼續存在的價值,究應加以終結或以其他可行方案代替之。
有關於種族優待措施所引起的爭議,本論文主要在三個問題上反對此項政策:第一,配額制。本論文認為種族優待措施認可了配額制,由於配額制的存在,使原本不符合條件的人得以被錄用提升。第二,反向歧視。種族優待措施給予少數種族、婦女優先照顧,以歧視來糾正歧視,使一個群體的成員優於另一個群體的成員,這是與美國個人主義精神格格不入的。第三,種族優待措施分裂了美國。不符合條件的人成為首選者,其他人自然會產生怨恨情緒,這種怨恨情緒造成了美國的分裂,即美國的巴爾幹化。
此外,本論文亦探討美國最高法院有關於種族優待措施的案件,其中以一九七八年的「加利福尼亞大學評議會訴巴基案」和兩千零三年「古特訴包林傑案」最具代表性,透過進一步檢視最高法院對此二招生歧視案件中所做出的劃時代判決,筆者認為在招生政策中採取種族優待措施,不論是希望彌補少數族裔以提高其競爭力亦或促進學生組成的多元化,皆是違憲而且違反美國個人機會均等精神的做法。
最後,筆者認為美國聯邦政府在處理公共就業、公共教育、或公共合約上應拋棄種族優待措施,並且恢復法律平等保護原則,不基於種族、性別、膚色、族群、或民族來源而歧視或優待任何個人或群體。
英文摘要 “Affirmative action” means positive steps taken to increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they have been historically excluded. When those steps involve preferential selection — selection on the basis of race, gender, or ethnicity — affirmative action generates intense controversy. Advocates of affirmative action argue that some form of preferential treatment is essential to break down long-standing patterns of discrimination against minorities and women so that employment patterns will more accurately reflect the pluralistic nature of American society. On the contrary, critics of affirmative action claim that it is “reverse discrimination” and a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment of the U. S. Constitution for seeing people in terms of groups and not as individuals.

This thesis aims to analyze how affirmative action has functioned in the field of higher education and employment in the United States, what consequences it has caused, and whether its principles can be justified. This study also shows how judicial rulings of the Supreme Court in two important cases, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) and Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), have transformed the noble ideal of equal opportunity for all individuals into the much more problematic goal of equal results for all groups.

Finally, the study comes to a conclusion with a ringing call for all Americans to end affirmative action and to reclaim the nation’s shared values of equal protection under the law, without reference to race, color, gender, or national origin.

論文目次 Table of Contents


Introduction…………………………………………………………… 1


Chapter One
Historical and Legal Background……………………………………. 10


Chapter Two
The Insuperable Problems of Affirmative Action……………………. 25


Chapter Three
Affirmative Action in Higher Education…………………………….. 51

Chapter Four
Affirmative Action in Employment and the Labor Market………….. 78


Chapter Five
Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 102


Bibliography…………………………………………………………. 111
參考文獻 Bibliography

Public Documents

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Adarand Constructors v. Pena 115 S. Ct. 2097 (1995). Jack C. Plano and Milton Greenberg, eds. The American Political Dictionary (Fort Worth, Texas: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1997), p. 347.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954). Elder Witt, The Supreme Court and Individual Rights (Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1988), p. 234-237.
Fullilove v. Klutznick, 448 U.S. 448 (1980), Ronald D. Rotunda, Constitutional Law: Principles and Cases (St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Company), p.433-438.
Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 02-516 (2003). http://supreme.lp.findlaw.com/supreme_court/briefs/02-516/02-516.mer.ami.usa.html (March 26, 2006).
Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424 (1971). Elder Witt, The Supreme Court and

Individual Rights (Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1988), p.

258-260.
Grutter v. Bollinger, No. 97-CV-75928-DT (E.D. Mich. Mar. 27, 2001).
http://www.mied.uscourts.gov/_opinions/Friedmanpdf/BAFgrutter2.pdf (January 19, 2006).
Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. (2003) (No. 02-241). http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/02pdf/02-241.pdf (April 22, 2006).
Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905), Ronald D. Rotunda, Constitutional Law: Principles and Cases (St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Company), p. 281-285.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 US 537 (1896). Elder Witt, The Supreme Court and Individual Rights (Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1988), p. 247-249.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978). Ronald D. Rotunda, Constitutional Law: Principles and Cases (St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Company), p. 425-433.

Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education, 476 U.S. 264 (1986). Elder Witt, The Supreme Court and Individual Rights (Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1988), p. 263-264.

Books

Ball, Howard. The Bakke Case: Race, Education, and Affirmative Action. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000.
Beckwith, Francis J., and Todd E. Jones, eds. Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Reverse Discrimination? New York: Prometheus Press, 1997.
Belz, Herman. Equality Transformed; A Quarter-Century of Affirmative Action. Piscataway, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 1991.
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Bergmann, Barbara R. The Economic Emergency of Women. New York: Basic Books, 1986.
Berstein, Richard. Dictatorship of Virtue: How the Battle over Multiculturalism Is Reshaping Our Schools, Our Country, and Our Lives. New York: Vintage, 1995.
Bok, Derek. Our Underachieving Colleges. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.
Bork, Robert H. Slouching Towards Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc., 1997.
Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey, Volume 2. New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities, 1999.
Buchanan, Patrick J. The Death of the West. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002.
Bunzel, John H. Affirmative Action in Higher Education: A Dilemma of Conflicting Principles. Stanford, Cal.: Hoover Institution Press, 1998.
Button, James W. Black Violence: Political Impact of the 1960s Riots. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978.
Cahn, Steve M. The Affirmative Action Debate. New York: Routledge, Inc., 1995.
Califano, Joseph A. The Triumph and Tragedy of Lyndon Johnson: The White House Years. College Station, Texas: A&M University Press, 2000.
Caplan, Lincoln. Up Against the Law: Affirmative Action and the Supreme Court. New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1997.
Card, David. Would the Elimination of Affirmative Action Affect Highly Qualified Minority Applicants? : Evidence from California and Texas. Berkeley: University of California, 2003.
Carter, Stephen L. Reflections of an Affirmative Action Baby. New York: Basic Books, 1992.
Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca. The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Chavez, Linda. Out of Barrio. New York: Basic Books, 1991.
Cohen, Carl. Naked Racial Preference. Lanham, Maryland: Madison Books, 1995.
Crosby, Faye J., and Cheryl Van DeVeer. Sex, Race, and Merit: Debating Affirmative Action in Education and Employment. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.
Crosby, Faye J. Affirmative Action is Dead; Long Live Affirmative Action. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
Davis, Angela Y. Women, Culture and Politics. New York: Vintage, 1990.
Davis, Bernard D. Storm over Biology: Essays on Science, Sentiment, and Public Policy. New York: Prometheus Books, 1986.
D’Souza, Dinesh. Illiberal Education: the Politics of Race and Sex on Campus. New York: The Free Press, 1991.
Eastland, Terry. Ending Affirmative Action: The Case for Colorblind Justice. New York: Basic Books, 1996.
Edward Tze-lu Ho, The Issue of Justice in Libertarian Thought: The Case of Autonomy, Ph. D. dissertation, Tamkang University, 2003.
Glazer, Nathan. Affirmative Discrimination: Ethnic Inequality and Public Policy. New York: Basic Books, 1987.
Graham, Hugh D. Collision Course: The Strange Convergence of Affirmative Action and Immigration Policy in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
________. The Civil Rights Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Henry, William. In Defense of Elitism. New York: Doubleday, 1994.
Holzer, Harry, and David Neumark. Are Affirmative Action Hires Less Qualified? : Evidence from Employer-Employee Data on New Hires. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1996.
Horowitz, David. Hating Whitey and Other Progressive Cause. Dallas, Texas: Spence Publishing Company, 1999.
Jeffries, John C. Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. New York: Scribner, 1994.
Kershnar, Stephen. Justice for the Past: American Constitutionalism. New York: University of New York Press, 2004.
Klitgaard, Robert. Choosing Elites. New York: Basic Books, 1985.
Kull, Andrew. The Color-Blind Constitution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993.
Lind, Michael. The Next American Nation. New York: Free Press, 1995.
Lipset, Seymour Martin, and Earl Rabb. Jews and the New Americans Scene. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.
Machan, Tibor R., and Douglas B. Rasmussen, Liberty for the 21st Century: Contemporary Libertarian Thought. Boston: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1995.
Mazrui, Ali. The African Position. London: Heinemann Education Books, 1980.
Miller, David. The Principle of Social Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Mosley, Albert G. and Nicholas Capaldi. Social Justice or Unfair Preference? Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1996.
Myrdal, Gunnar. An American Dilemma. New York: Harper & Bros., 1944.
Oren, Dan A. Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
Orlans, Harold, and June O’Neill, ed. Affirmative Action Revisited. Newbury Park, Cal.: Sage Publications, 1992.
Piven, Frances F., and Richard Cloward. Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.
Plano, Jack C., and Milton Greenberg, ed., The American Political Dictionary. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1997.
Rand, Ayn. For The New Intellectual: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand. New York: New American Library, 1961.
________. The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism. New York: New American Library, 1961.
Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Boston: Belknap Press, 1999.
Rosenfeld, Michel. Affirmative Action and Justice: A Philosophical and Constitutional Inquiry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.
Schuck, Peter H. Diversity in America: Keeping Government at a Safe Distance. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Scotchmer, Suzanne. Affirmative Action in Hierarchies. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.
Skrentny, John David. The Ironies of Affirmative Action: Politics, Culture and Justice in America. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Sowell, Thomas. Civil Rights: Rhetoric or Reality? New York: William Marrow and Company, 1984.
__________. Affirmative Action Around the World: An Empirical Study. London: Yale University Press, 2004.
Steele, Shelby. The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America. New York: Morrow, 1991.
Steven, Farron. Affirmative Action Hoax: Diversity the Importance of Character and Other Lies. Santa Ana, Cal.: Seven Locks Press, 2005.
Szasz, Thomas. The Theology of Medicine: The Political-Philosophical Foundations of Medical Ethics. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
Tomasson, Richard F., Faye J. Crosby, and Sharon D. Herzberger. Affirmative Action: The Pros and Cons of Policy and Practice. Boston: University Press of America, 1996.
Wilkinson, Harvie J. From Brown to Bakke: The Supreme Court and School Integration. 1954-1978. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.
Wilson, William Julius. The Truly Disadvantaged; The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1987.
Witt, Elder. The Supreme Court and Individual Rights. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1988.
Wood, Peter. Diversity: The Invention of a Concept. San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003.

Articles

Billingsley, K. L. “Dancing with the Elephant, ” Heterodoxy, March/April, 1995:1-13.
Brimelow, Peter, and Leslie Spencer, “When Quotas Replace Merit, Everybody Suffers,” Forbes, February 15, 1993: 90-99.
Cage, Mary C. “Affirmative Action on the Line,” Chronicle of Higher Education, April 28, 1995: A11-33.
Curry, Tom. “Split Decision on Racial Preferences,” MSNBC, June, 23, 2003: 1-5.
Froomkin, Dan. “Affirmative Action Under Attack,” Washington Post, 1998. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/affirm/affirm.htm (March 20, 2006).
Glazer, Nathan. “Big Gaps Found in College Students’ Grasp of Current Affairs,”
New York Times, April 18,1993: 36.
Gottfredson, Linda S. “Racially Gerrymandering the Content of Police Tests to Satisfy the U.S. Department: A Case Study,” Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 2, 1996: 418-446.
Horowitz, David. “The Feminist Assault on the Military,” National Review, vol. 44, October 5, 1992: 7-14.
La Griffe de Lion, “Affirmative Action: The Robin Hood Effect,” Heterodox, vol. 1, no. 4, December, 1999: 20-27.
Long, Roderick T. “Equality: The Unknown Idea,” October 16, 2001 http://www.mises.org/story/804 (April 21, 2006).
Lott, John R. Jr. “Does a Helping Hand Put Others at Risk? Affirmative Action, Police Departments, and Crime,” Economic Inquiry, vol. 38, no. 2, April 2000: 239-277.
Lynch, Fredrick R. “Tales from an Oppressed Class,” Wall Street Journal, November 11, 1991: 12-18.
Murray, Charles. “Affirmative Racism: How Preferential Treatment Works Against Blacks,” The New Republic, Vol. 191, Issue 26, December 31, 1984: 18-23. http://web112.epnet.com/citation.asp?tb=1&_ug=sid+26091CE0%2D74D7%2D47EE%2DAA0D%2DA5B65A9D2AB5%40sessionmgr3+dbs+aph+cp+1+B57C&_us=sel+False+sl+0+hd+False+hs+True+cst+0%3B2+or+Date+fh+False+ss+SO+sm+ES+mdbs+aph+ri+KAAAGEKB00001355+dstb+ES+mh+1+frn+1+46B7&_uso=hd+False+tg%5B2+%2D+tg%5B1+%2D+tg%5B0+%2D+st%5B2+%2D+st%5B1+%2D+st%5B0+%2Daffirmative++racism+db%5B0+%2Daph+op%5B2+%2DAnd+op%5B1+%2DAnd+op%5B0+%2D+mdb%5B0+%2Dimh+7106&fn=1&rn=1 (April 6, 2006).
Nelson, T. J. “The Psychology of Egalitarianism,” April 20, 2003. http://brneurosci.org/relativism.html (April 22, 2006)
Peretz, Martin. “A Class Thing: A Teacher’s Radical Dilemmas.” New Republic, Vol. 211 Issue 18, October 31, 1994:11-12. http://web112.epnet.com/citation.asp?tb=1&_ug=sid+26091CE0%2D74D7%2D47EE%2DAA0D%2DA5B65A9D2AB5%40sessionmgr3+dbs+aph+cp+1+B57C&_us=sel+False+frn+1+sl+0+hd+False+hs+True+cst+0%3B2+or+Date+fh+False+ss+SO+sm+ES+mdbs+aph+dstb+ES+mh+1+ri+KAAAGEKB00001298+D7FD&_uso=hd+False+tg%5B2+%2D+tg%5B1+%2D+tg%5B0+%2D+st%5B2+%2D+st%5B1+%2D+st%5B0+%2Da++class++thing+db%5B0+%2Daph+op%5B2+%2DAnd+op%5B1+%2DAnd+op%5B0+%2D+mdb%5B0+%2Dimh+7D96&cf=1&fn=1&rn=4 (April 5, 2006).
Sarich, Vincent .“The Institutionalization of Racism at the University of California at Berkeley,” Academic Questions, vol. 4, Winter 1990: 77-78.
Schlafly, Phyllis. “Equality for Women in Our Military,” May 19, 2004. http://www.eagleforum.org/column/2004/may04/04-05-19.html (April 19, 2006).
_________. “The Radical Goals of the Feminists,” 1991. http://www.eagleforum.org/psr/1991/dec91/psrdec91.html (April 19, 2006).
Schmidt, Frank L., and John Hunter, “The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel Psychology,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 124, no. 2, September 1998: 262-274.
Schmidt, Peter. “Affirmative Action Survives, and So Does the Debate,” Chronicle of Higher Education, Volume 49, Issue 43, July 4, 2003: 1-5. http://chronicle.com/free/v49/i43/43s00101.htm (March 30, 2006).
Selove, Matt. “The Affirmative Action Catch-22,” The Harvard Salient, February 12, 1995. http://www.digitas.harvard.edu/~salient/issues/950213/page5.html (January 27, 2006).
Steele, Shelby. “The Shady Legacy of Affirmative Action,” New York Times, op-ed page, March 1, 1995. http://web112.epnet.com/citation.asp?tb=1&_uh=btn+Y+A152&_ug=sid+26091CE0%2D74D7%2D47EE%2DAA0D%2DA5B65A9D2AB5%40sessionmgr3+dbs+aph+cp+1+B57C&_us=dstb+ES+mh+1+frn+81+fcl+Aut+hs+True+or+Date+mdbs+aph+ss+SO+sm+ES+sl+%2D1+hd+False+sel+False+ri+KAAAGEKB00001419+96DD&_ua=bt+%22New++York++Times%22+shn+1+db+aphjnh+bo+B%5FJN+BF2B&_uso=hd+False+tg%5B0+%2D+st%5B0+%2DJN++%22New++York++Times%22++and++DT++19950301+db%5B0+%2Daph+op%5B0+%2D+mdb%5B0+%2Dimh+DA45&fn=81&rn=90 (March 10, 2006).
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