淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


系統識別號 U0002-0207201421032900
中文論文名稱 應用傳訊賽局建構服務補救機制
英文論文名稱 Applying Signaling Game to Build a Service Recovery Mechanism
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Information Management
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 葉書羽
研究生英文姓名 Shu-Yu Yeh
電子信箱 dec791220@gmail.com
學號 602630047
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-21
論文頁數 207頁
口試委員 指導教授-解燕豪
委員-戴敏育
委員-伍台國
中文關鍵字 服務補救  傳訊賽局  人格特質  賽局理論  服務科學 
英文關鍵字 Service Recovery  Signaling Game  Personality Traits  Game Theory  Service Science 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在服務業蓬勃發展的世代下,服務提供商與顧客接觸的機會大幅上升,因此,服務提供商越來越重視其服務品質,並期盼顧客能夠從他們所提供的服務中獲得滿意的感受。服務擁有其四大特性:無形性、異質性、不可分割性以及易逝性,因服務的異質性,使得服務難以規格化及標準化,在多樣性及多變性的服務下,不同顧客對於服務的預期不盡相同,若服務提供商提供給顧客的服務未達到顧客原先的期待,將會使顧客感到不滿,因而發生服務失誤。在服務失誤發生後,服務提供商必須透過服務補救,來挽回顧客的滿意度、忠誠度、口碑,這也意味著服務提供商必須擬定一套完善的服務補救策略,如此才能保留住顧客,使顧客在服務失誤發生後,重新回來該服務提供商消費。
傳統服務提供商在遇到服務失誤時,通常針對不同的失誤類型,給予一套標準的服務補救,但該補救並未考量服務提供商當下的資源狀況,使得服務提供商在資源不足時,仍需耗費相當資源予以補救,且服務提供商在對顧客進行服務補救時,必須考量眾多的因素予以補救,舉凡服務失誤的原因、服務失誤的嚴重程度以及顧客的情緒等,而不是ㄧ味的投入其資源進行服務補救,如此服務提供商才能長久經營。而本研究認為影響服務提供商給予顧客的服務補救成功與否,其關鍵要素之ㄧ為顧客的人格特質,因此本研究將透過了解不同人格之顧客在遭遇服務失誤時,可能會產生的行為及反應,進而幫助服務提供商在面對不同人格之顧客,並且考量其自身的資源狀況下,擬定其最佳的服務補救策略,使對服務提供商感到不滿的顧客重拾信心,讓服務提供商得以永續經營。
本研究透過賽局理論中的傳訊賽局建構出一套服務補救機制,將顧客及服務提供商假設為賽局中的參賽者,並藉由探討過去與服務補救相關之重要文獻,以及與兩家飯店高階主管訪談之結果,設置服務提供商及顧客雙方的報酬參數,且本研究透過分析全球最大的旅遊網站之一:TripAdvisor旅遊網站,歸納出了四個服務失誤及服務補救的情境,包含分離均衡:外向性顧客抱怨-神經質型顧客不抱怨CENCN情境、分離均衡:外向性顧客不抱怨-神經質型顧客抱怨分離均衡NCECN情境、擾和均衡:外向性顧客抱怨-神經質型顧客抱怨CECN情境以及擾和均衡:外向性顧客抱怨不-神經質型顧客不抱怨NCENCN情境,以此四個情境,進行本研究之模型推導與分析。在一連串的模型推導與分析後,本研究在以實際與兩家飯店高階主管訪談所獲得之資料結果,進行參數的假設,並以實際數值帶入本研究之傳訊賽局模型,而根據實際數值下的推導結果,可以幫助服務提供商在服務失誤發生後,同時考量服務提供商及顧客雙方面的立場,找出在四種情境下的均衡及均衡範圍,而該均衡即為服務提供商及顧客在服務失誤以及服務補救後,可以獲得最佳報酬的策略及行動組合。
透過本研究之研究結果可發現:(1)不同人格類型的顧客除了因服務失誤對其造成的損害大小外,顧客在抱怨時所付的時間、心力以及該抱怨對其造成名聲、名譽的損害也會影響顧客抱怨的意願; (2)顧客人格的差異,對於服務提供商給予顧客的服務補救策略是有影響的,服務提供商不應只考慮該服務失誤的嚴重程度給予顧客服務補救; (3)在服務失誤發生後,服務提供商若在不同的情境下給予不同的服務補救方法,將可妥善應用其當下資源,提升資源使用的效率; (4)在服務失誤及服務補救中事件中,顧客與服務提供商雙方獲得的報酬會因其中一方的策略及行動而有所不同; (5)藉由應用傳訊賽局模型的概念,可將抱怨的顧客轉換為對服務提供商滿意的顧客。本研究有以下之學術貢獻:(1)本研究以創新的方式設計出了一套服務補救機制; (2)本研究提出一套能夠站在雙方面立場的服務補救機制;(3)透過本研究實際數值的推導結果,證明了顧客人格的差異確實會影響服務提供商的服務補救策略。且本研究有以下之實務貢獻:(1) 本研究之服務補救機制幫助服務提供商在進行服務補救時,其資源的運用更加效率化;(2)本研究之服務補救機制可幫助顧客在服務失誤後,獲得較佳的服務補救方法;(3)本研究之服務補救機制可減少服務補救失敗的可能性。最後,本研究有以下之研究限制:(1)本研究僅以五因素模型中的外向性及神經質型兩種人格做為本研究主要研究對象; (2)本研究在考量顧客及服務提供商報酬時僅各考慮5個參數; (3)本研究使用賽局理論中的傳訊賽局作為本研究的研究方法,但在進行模型推導前必須有些假設前提,且本研究也期望未來學者試以將其他賽局,同以應用到服務補救相關領域上,以幫助服務提供商在選定服務補救方法等決策行為時能有更多樣的決策方法,並期望未來學者可以以延伸性傳訊賽局做為研究的方向,舉凡將服務提供商可提供的實際補救的方法納入考量,讓賽局中的參賽者能有更多樣的策略選擇,並從中選出對自己最有利的策略及行動,以獲得最大的報酬。
英文摘要 In the era of service economy, service providers easily interact with customers during service delivery. Owing to the heterogeneity of services, it is difficult for service providers to specify and standardize the service design and delivery processes. Hence, services could not meet customers’ needs and expectations which result in service failures and customer dissatisfaction. Traditionally, service providers have a standard service recovery process and do their best to remedy mistakes for customers when service providers encounter different kinds of service failures. However, service providers usually can’t carefully concern about the controlled levels of existing resources. In order to achieve high customer satisfaction, service providers always take a lot of effort to remedy service failures even though they are lack of sufficient resources. Meanwhile, service failures could be result from many causes including service quality, levels of service complexity and personality traits etc. Service providers have to take these critical factors into account for service recovery rather than only taking lots of resources. The most important factor is personality traits to influence the success of service recovery. Accordingly, this study aims to understand the customer responses and actions when customers encounter service failures that belong to different personality traits. This study builds a mechanism of service recovery to help service providers to make the optimal strategy by considering their controlled levels of existing resources to achieve the success of service recovery.
This study attempts to build a mechanism of service recovery based on the signaling game theory including service providers and customers. This study designs the parameters of payoffs of the signaling game based mechanism by reviewing critical literatures and interviewing two senior hotel managers. In order to understand the actual service recovery situations, this study analyzes the customer feedback and past experiences of perceiving hotel services via the website of TripAdvisor. Based on the analysis, this study defines four scenarios of service recovery including separating equilibrium: extraversion customers with complaints─neuroticism customers without complaints, separating equilibrium: extraversion customers without complaints─neuroticism customers with complaints, pooling equilibrium: extraversion customers with complaints─neuroticism customers with complaints and extraversion customers without complaints─neuroticism customers without complaints. Hence, this study applies the four scenarios to carefully infer and build four signaling game models. The real data which is collected from interviews and literatures reviews can be inputted to the proposed models in order to evaluate the feasibility and the accuracy of the mechanism of service recovery. The equilibrium of the payoff for each model can be also explored. In other words, the mechanism is taken service providers and customers into account to find out the optimal strategies and actions.
The research findings include 1) customers’ effort, time and reputation can influence their intention to complain about service failures 2) the service recovery strategies should be dynamically responded to different personality traits of customers 3) service providers have to employ suitable service recovery execution within four scenarios 4) the payoffs of service providers and customers could be diverse based on their strategies and actions 5) customers with complaints can be satisfied with the quality service recovery. Besides, the research contributions of this study are detailed as follows 1) this study tries to design the mechanism of service recovery in an innovative perspective 2) the mechanism of service recovery is considered two roles of service providers and customers 3) the practical analysis revels that different personality traits of customers enable service providers to select suitable service recovery strategies. The practical contributions of this study include 1) the mechanism of service recovery help service providers to effectively use resources to remedy service failures 2) the mechanism of service recovery help customers to acquire proper services to improve service failures 3) the mechanism of service recovery increase the success of service recovery. There are several research limitations including 1) this study only focuses on extraversion and neuroticism customers 2) this study applies five parameters to represent the payoffs of the mechanism of service recovery 3) this study defines several scenarios and assumptions to infer the signaling game models in order to clarify the research boundary. In the future, researchers can continuously adopt other models of game theory to the field of service recovery and design suitable service recovery strategies for service providers to remedy service failures. The applications of successful practical cases of service recovery should be also a research direction for the field of service science.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract IV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 3
1.3 研究問題 4
1.4 研究目的 6
1.5 研究流程 8
第二章 文獻探討 10
2.1 服務科學 10
2.1.1 何謂服務 11
2.1.2 服務科學 12
2.1.3 服務系統 16
2.1.4 小結 17
2.2 服務補救 18
2.2.1 服務失誤 18
2.2.2 服務補救 22
2.2.3 小結 24
2.3 人格特質 29
2.3.1 人格特質的定義 29
2.3.2 五因素模型 30
2.3.3 人格特質在服務補救中的應用 31
2.3.4 小結 32
2.4 賽局理論 34
2.5 傳訊賽局 38
第三章 研究方法 44
3.1 研究模型 44
3.2 小結 56
第四章 模型推導與分析 58
4.1.1 分離均衡:外向型顧客抱怨-神經質型顧客不抱怨CENCN情境 60
4.1.2 分離均衡:外向型顧客不抱怨-神經質型顧客抱怨NCECN情境 68
4.1.3 分離均衡情境討論 75
4.2 擾和均衡 76
4.2.1 擾和均衡:外向型顧客抱怨-神經質型顧客抱怨CECN情境 77
4.2.2 擾和均衡:外向型顧客不抱怨-神經質型顧客不抱怨NCENCN情境 85
4.2.3 擾和均衡情境討論 92
4.3 研究對象及結果 98
4.3.1 訪談機構 98
4.3.2 訪談對象 99
4.3.3 訪談結果 100
4.3.4 參數假設 103
4.4 實例分析 108
4.4.1 分離均衡:外向型顧客抱怨-神經質型顧客不抱怨CENCN情境 108
4.4.2 分離均衡:外向型顧客不抱怨-神經質型顧客抱怨NCECN情境 110
4.4.3 分離均衡情境討論 111
4.4.4 擾和均衡:外向型顧客抱怨-神經質型顧客抱怨CECN情境 112
4.4.5 擾和均衡:外向型顧客不抱怨-神經質型顧客不抱怨NCENCN情境 116
4.4.6 擾和均衡情境討論 119
4.5 討論 124
4.6 小結 130
第五章 結論 132
5.1 研究總結 132
5.2 研究貢獻 137
5.2.1 學術貢獻 137
5.2.2 實務貢獻 138
5.3 研究限制 140
參考文獻 143
附錄 156

表 2-1:價值創造:產品導向邏輯(G-D) vs. 服務導向邏輯(S-D) 15
表 2-2:服務補救文獻整理 26
表 2-3:元素及其說明 35
表 2-4:賽局的四個型態 36
表 3-1:服務補救機制參數說明 54
表 3-2:服務補救機制報酬表 56
表 4-1:本研究受訪機構資料 98
表 4-2:本研究受訪者資料 99
表 4-3:服務補救機制之報酬參數假設 107

圖 1-1:研究流程圖 9
圖 2-1:傳訊賽局模型 39
圖 2-2:啤酒與蛋餅賽局 43
圖 3-1:服務補救機制步驟 45
圖 3-2:顧客抱怨行為之分類 47
圖 3-3:傳訊賽局延伸模型 50
圖 3-4:傳訊賽局四步驟 50
圖 3-5:服務補救之傳訊賽局模型 51
圖 4-1:分離均衡: CENCN情境 60
圖 4-2:分離均衡: NCECN情境 68
圖 4-3:擾和均衡: CECN情境 77
圖 4-4:擾和均衡: NCENCN情境 85
圖 4-5:傳訊賽局模型之報酬參數假設 108
圖 4-6:傳訊賽局模型之報酬參數假設分離均衡:CENCN情境 108
圖 4-7:傳訊賽局模型之報酬參數假設分離均衡:NCECN情境 110
圖 4-8:傳訊賽局模型之報酬參數假設擾和均衡:CECN情境 112
圖 4-9:傳訊賽局模型之報酬參數假設擾和均衡:NCENCN情境 116
圖 4-10:服務補救機制的應用 130

參考文獻 1. Amichai-Hamburger, Y., Wainapel, G., & Fox, S. (2002). " On the internet no one knows I'm an introvert": Extroversion, neuroticism, and internet interaction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 5(2), 125-128.
2. Avizienis, A., Laprie, J., Randell, B., & Landwehr, C. (2004). Basic concepts and taxonomy of dependable and secure computing. Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on, 1(1), 11-33.
3. Bearden, W. O., & Teel, J. E. (1983). Selected determinants of consumer satisfaction and complaint reports. Journal of Marketing Research, 20(1), 21-28
4. Bell, C. R., & Zemke, R. E. (1987). Service breakdown: The road to recovery. Management Review, 76(10), 32-35.
5. Bendall-Lyon, D., & Powers, T. L. (2001). The role of complaint management in the service recovery process. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 27(5), 278-286.
6. Bitner, M. J., Booms, B. H., & Mohr, L. A. (1994). Critical service encounters: The employee's viewpoint. Journal of Marketing, 58(4), 95-106
7. Bitner, M. J., Booms, B. H., & Tetreault, M. S. (1990). The service encounter: Diagnosing favorable and unfavorable incidents. Journal of Marketing, 54(1), 71-84
8. Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 901-910.
9. Boshoff, C., & Leong, J. (1998). Empowerment, attribution and apologising as dimensions of service recovery: An experimental study. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 9(1), 24-47.
10. Camerer, C. F. (1991). Does strategy research need game theory? Strategic Management Journal, 12(S2), 137-152.
11. Camerer, C. F. (1997). Progress in behavioral game theory. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(4), 167-188.
12. Cho, I., & Kreps, D. M. (1987). Signaling games and stable equilibria. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 102(2), 179-221.
13. Chuang, S., Cheng, Y., Chang, C., & Yang, S. (2012). The effect of service failure types and service recovery on customer satisfaction: A mental accounting perspective. The Service Industries Journal, 32(2), 257-271.
14. Colgate, M., & Norris, M. (2001). Developing a comprehensive picture of service failure. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(3), 215-233.
15. Cong, Q., & Fu, J. (2009). A research on the structure of Customer’s service recovery expectation. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(10), 59-64.
16. Costa Jr, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(6), 653-665.
17. Day, R.L., & Landon, E.L. (1977). Toward a theory of consumer complaining behavior. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
18. DeWitt, T., Nguyen, D. T., & Marshall, R. (2008). Exploring customer loyalty following service recovery the mediating effects of trust and emotions. Journal of Service Research, 10(3), 269-281.
19. Driver, C., & Johnston, R. (2001). Understanding service customers the value of hard and soft attributes. Journal of Service Research, 4(2), 130-139.
20. Edvardsson, B., & Olsson, J. (1996). Key concepts for new service development. Service Industries Journal, 16(2), 140-164.
21. Edvardsson, B., Tronvoll, B., & Hoykinpuro, R. (2011). Complex service recovery processes: how to avoid triple deviation. Managing Service Quality, 21(4), 331-349.
22. Ekinci, Y., & Dawes, P. L. (2009). Consumer perceptions of frontline service employee personality traits, interaction quality, and consumer satisfaction. The Service Industries Journal, 29(4), 503-521.
23. Ennew, C. and Schoefer, K. (2004), Service failure and service recovery in tourism: a review, in Raj, A. (Ed.), The Tourist: A Psychological Perspective, Tourism and Travel Research Institute, Nottingham.
24. Ferrario, R., Guarino, N., Janiesch, C., Kiemes, T., Oberle, D., & Probst, F. Towards an ontological foundation of services science: The general service model,” Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, 10th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Zurich, Switzerland, pp. 675-684, February, 2011.
25. Fiestras-Janeiro, M. G., Garcia-Jurado, I., Meca, A., & Mosquera, M. A. (2011). Cooperative game theory and inventory management. European Journal of Operational Research, 210(3), 459-466.
26. Fudenberg, D., & Tirole, J. (1991). Perfect bayesian equilibrium and sequential equilibrium. Journal of Economic Theory, 53(2), 236-260.
27. Gibbons, R. (1992). A Primer in Game Theory. New York: Wheatsheaf.
28. Gibbons, R. S. (1997). An Introduction to Applicable Game Theory. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(1), 127-149.
29. Goldberg, L. R. (1981). Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 2(1), 141-165.
30. Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative" description of personality": The big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 1216-1229.
31. Goldberg, L. R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality traits. American Psychologist, 48(1), 26-34.
32. Gountas, J., & Gountas, S. (2007). Personality orientations, emotional states, customer satisfaction, and intention to repurchase. Journal of Business Research, 60(1), 72-75.
33. Gronroos, C. (1988). Service quality: The six criteria of good perceived service quality. Review of Business, 9(3), 10-13.
34. Gronroos, C., & Gummerus, J. (2014). The service revolution and its marketing implications: service logic vs service-dominant logic. Managing Service Quality, 24(3), 206-229.
35. Gummesson, E., & Gronroos, C. (2012). The emergence of the new service marketing: Nordic school perspectives. Journal of Service Management, 23(4), 479-497.
36. Ha, J., & Jang, S. S. (2009). Perceived justice in service recovery and behavioral intentions: The role of relationship quality. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(3), 319-327.
37. Harris, K. E., Grewal, D., Mohr, L. A., & Bernhardt, K. L. (2006). Consumer responses to service recovery strategies: The moderating role of online versus offline environment. Journal of Business Research, 59(4), 425-431.
38. Harsanyi, J. C. (1967). Games with incomplete information played by “Bayesian” players, I-III part I. the basic model. Management Science, 14(3), 159-182.
39. Hedrick, N., Beverland, M., & Minahan, S. (2007). An exploration of relational customers' response to service failure. Journal of Services Marketing, 21(1), 64-72.
40. Hess, R.L.Jr. (1999). The effects of employee-initiated peripheral service failures on customers’ satisfactions with the service organization. Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved from http://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/27908/DIS_FINAL.PDF?sequence=1
41. Hui, M. K., Zhao, X., Fan, X., & Au, K. (2004). When does the service process matter? A test of two competing theories. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(2), 465-475.
42. Hurley, R. F. (1998). Customer service behavior in retail settings: A study of the effect of service provider personality. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26(2), 115-127.
43. Kau, A., & Loh, E. W. (2006). The effects of service recovery on consumer satisfaction: A comparison between complainants and non-complainants. Journal of Services Marketing, 20(2), 101-111.
44. Keng, K. A., Richmond, D., & Han, S. (1995). Determinants of consumer complaint behaviour: A study of singapore consumers. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 8(2), 59-76.
45. Komunda, M., & Osarenkhoe, A. (2012). Remedy or cure for service failure? Effects of service recovery on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Business Process Management Journal, 18(1), 82-103.
46. Kwon, S., & Jang, S. S. (2012). Effects of compensation for service recovery: From the equity theory perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(4), 1235-1243.
47. La, S., & Choi, B. (2012). The role of customer affection and trust in loyalty rebuilding after service failure and recovery. The Service Industries Journal, 32(1), 105-125.
48. Levitt, T. (1972). Production-line approach to service. Harvard Business Review, 50(5), 41-52.
49. Liao, H. (2007). Do it right this time: The role of employee service recovery performance in customer-perceived justice and customer loyalty after service failures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 475-489.
50. Liao, H., & Chuang, A. (2004). A multilevel investigation of factors influencing employee service performance and customer outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 47(1), 41-58.
51. Lin, H. H., Wang, Y. S., & Chang, L. K. (2011). Consumer responses to online retailer's service recovery after a service failure: a perspective of justice theory.Managing Service Quality, 21(5), 511-534.
52. Lovelock, C. H. (1983). Classifying services to gain strategic marketing insights. Journal of Marketing, 47(3), 9-20.
53. Lusch, R. F. (2011). Reframing supply chain management: a service‐dominant logic perspective. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 47(1), 14-18.
54. Lusch, R. F., Vargo, S. L., & Wessels, G. (2008). Toward a conceptual foundation for service science: Contributions from service-dominant logic. IBM Systems Journal, 47(1), 5-14.
55. MacDonald, K. (1998). Evolution, culture, and the five-factor model. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29(1), 119-149.
56. MacKenzie, A. B., & Wicker, S. B. Game theory in communications: Motivation, explanation, and application to power control. Global Telecommunications Conference,. GLOBECOM '01. IEEE, 2, Texas, San Antonio, 821-826, November, 2001.
57. Maglio, P. P., & Spohrer, J. (2008). Fundamentals of service science. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 18-20.
58. Maglio, P. P., Srinivasan, S., Kreulen, J. T., & Spohrer, J. (2006). Service systems, service scientists, SSME, and innovation. Communications of the ACM, 49(7), 81-85.
59. Maglio, P. P., Vargo, S. L., Caswell, N., & Spohrer, J. (2009). The service system is the basic abstraction of service science. Information Systems and e-Business Management, 7(4), 395-406.
60. Maglio, P., Bailey, J., & Gruhl, D. (2007). Steps toward a science of service systems. Computer, 40(1), 71-77.
61. Magnini, V. P., Ford, J. B., Markowski, E. P., & Honeycutt Jr, E. D. (2007). The service recovery paradox: Justifiable theory or smoldering myth? Journal of Services Marketing, 21(3), 213-225.
62. Mattila, A. S. (1999). An examination of factors affecting service recovery in a restaurant setting. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 23(3), 284-298.
63. Mattila, A. S. (2001). The effectiveness of service recovery in a multi-industry setting. Journal of Services Marketing, 15(7), 583-596.
64. Matzler, K., Faullant, R., Renzl, B., & Leiter, V. (2005). The relationship between personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism), emotions and customer self-satisfaction. Innovative Marketing, 1(2), 32-39.
65. Maxham III, J. G. (2001). Service recovery's influence on consumer satisfaction, positive word-of-mouth, and purchase intentions. Journal of Business Research, 54(1), 11-24.
66. McAdams, D. P., & Pals, J. L. (2006). A new big five: Fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality. American Psychologist, 61(3), 204-217.
67. McCrae, R. R. (2001). Trait psychology and culture: Exploring intercultural comparisons. Journal of Personality, 69(6), 819-846.
68. Michel, S., & Meuter, M. L. (2008). The service recovery paradox: True but overrated? International Journal of Service Industry Management, 19(4), 441-457.
69. Michel, S., Bowen, D., & Johnston, R. (2009). Why service recovery fails: Tensions among customer, employee, and process perspectives. Journal of Service Management, 20(3), 253-273.
70. Miller, J. L., Craighead, C. W., & Karwan, K. R. (2000). Service recovery: A framework and empirical investigation. Journal of Operations Management, 18(4), 387-400.
71. Model, I. (1989). Cheap talk with two audiences. The American Economic Review, 79(5), 1214-1223.
72. Morganosky, M. A., & Buckley, H. M. (1987). Complaint behavior: Analysis by demographics, lifestyle, and consumer values. Advances in Consumer Research, 14(1), 223-226.
73. Morwitz, V., Greenleaf, E., & Johnson, E. J. (1998). Divide and prosper: Consumers' reaction to partitioned prices. Journal of Marketing Research, 35(4), 453-463.
74. Mostert, P., De Meyer, C., & Van Rensburg, L. (2009). The influence of service failure and service recovery on airline passengers' relationships with domestic airlines: An exploratory study. Southern African Business Review, 13(2), 118-140.
75. Munck, G. L. (2001). Game theory and comparative politics: New perspectives and old concerns. World Politics, 53(2), 173-204.
76. Ngo, L. V., & O'Cass, A. (2009). Creating value offerings via operant resource-based capabilities. Industrial Marketing Management, 38(1), 45-59.
77. Nikbin, D., Ismail, I., & Marimuthu, M. (2013). The relationship between informational justice, recovery satisfaction, and loyalty: The moderating role of failure attributions. Service Business, 7(3), 419-435.
78. Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4), 460-469.
79. Olver, J. M., & Mooradian, T. A. (2003). Personality traits and personal values: A conceptual and empirical integration. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(1), 109-125.
80. Palmer, A., Beggs, R., & Keown-McMullan, C. (2000). Equity and repurchase intention following service failure. Journal of Services Marketing, 14(6), 513-528.
81. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. The Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41-50.
82. Parker, D. W., & Lui, H. Y. (2012). Building processes for customer retention and service recovery. Progressing Business, 4(4), 3-6.
83. Petzer, D., Steyn, T., & Mostert, P. (2009). Customer retention practices of small, medium, and large hotels in south africa: An exploratory study. African Journal of Marketing Management, 1(1), 32-42.
84. Poppe, C., Crombez, G., Hanoulle, I., Vogelaers, D., & Petrovic, M. (2013). Improving quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: influence of acceptance and personality. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 28(1), 116-121.
85. Poropat, A. E. (2009). A meta-analysis of the five-factor model of personality and academic performance. Psychological Bulletin, 135(2), 322-338.
86. Priluck, R. (2003). Relationship marketing can mitigate product and service failures. Journal of Services Marketing, 17(1), 37-52.
87. Richins, M. L. (1983). Negative word-of-mouth by dissatisfied consumers: A pilot study. The Journal of Marketing, 47(1), 68-78.
88. Ro, H. J. (2013). Articles: Customer complaining behaviors after restaurant service failure: Redress seeking complaint, friendly complaint, loyalty and neglect. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 13(1), 27-46.
89. Roberts, B. W., & Mroczek, D. (2008). Personality trait change in adulthood. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(1), 31-35.
90. Roland T. R,. Valarie Z, & Katherine N. L. (2001), Driving Customer Equity: How Customer Lifetime Value Is Reshaping Corporate Strategy. Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 107-109.
91. Rothmann, S., & Coetzer, E. (2003). The big five personality dimensions and job performance. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29(1), 68-74.
92. Saucier, G. (1994). Mini-markers: A brief version of goldberg's unipolar big-five markers. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63(3), 506-516.
93. Shoham, A., Gavish, Y., & Segev, S. (2012). Drivers of customers’ reactions to service failures: The israeli experience. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 4(1), 76-90.
94. Shostack, G. L. (1987). Service positioning through structural change. The Journal of Marketing, 51(1), 34-43.
95. Skeem, J. L., Edens, J. F., Sanford, G. M., & Colwell, L. H. (2003). Psychopathic personality and racial/ethnic differences reconsidered: A reply to lynn (2002). Personality and Individual Differences, 35(6), 1439-1462.
96. Smith, A. K., Bolton, R. N., & Wagner, J. (1999). A model of customer satisfaction with service encounters involving failure and recovery. Journal of Marketing Research, 36(3), 356-372.
97. Sobel, J. (2012). Signaling games. New York: Springer
98. Spence, M. (1973). Job market signaling. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87(3), 355-374.
99. Spohrer, J., Anderson, L., Pass, N., & Ager, T. (2008). Service science and service-dominant logic. Otago Forum, 2, 4-18.
100. Spreng, R. A., Harrell, G. D., & Mackoy, R. D. (1995). Service recovery: Impact on satisfaction and intentions. Journal of Services Marketing, 9(1), 15-23.
101. Srivastava, S., John, O. P., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2003). Development of personality in early and middle adulthood: Set like plaster or persistent change? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(5), 1041-1053.
102. Stoft, S. (1999). Game Theory Applications in Electric Power Markets: IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting. New York: IEEE
103. Svendsen, G. B., Johnsen, J. K., Almas-Sorensen, L., & Vitterso, J. (2013). Personality and technology acceptance: The influence of personality factors on the core constructs of the technology acceptance model. Behaviour & Information Technology, 32(4), 323-334.
104. Thogersen, J., Juhl, H. J., & Poulsen, C. S. (2009). Complaining: A function of attitude, personality, and situation. Psychology & Marketing, 26(8), 760-777.
105. Tobin, R. M., Graziano, W. G., Vanman, E. J., & Tassinary, L. G. (2000). Personality, emotional experience, and efforts to control emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(4), 656.
106. Triandis, H. C., & Suh, E. M. (2002). Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 133-160.
107. Tronvoll, B. (2011). Negative emotions and their effect on customer complaint behaviour. Journal of Service Management, 22(1), 111-134.
108. Ural, T. (2008). Consumer responses to process and outcome failures in service firms. Problems and perspectives in management : PPM, 6(3), 48-56
109. Varela-Neira, C., Vazquez-Casielles, R., & Iglesias, V. (2010). Explaining customer satisfaction with complaint handling. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 28(2), 88-112.
110. Vargo, S. L., & Akaka, M. A. (2009). Service-dominant logic as a foundation for service science: Clarifications. Service Science, 1(1), 32-41.
111. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 1-17.
112. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2008). Why “service”? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 25-38.
113. Vargo, S. L., Maglio, P. P., & Akaka, M. A. (2008). On value and value co-creation: A service systems and service logic perspective. European Management Journal, 26(3), 145-152.
114. Wan-I, L., Chia-Chi, L., Cheng-Wu, C., & Chieh-Shan, C. (2012). An experimental design of service failure, recovery and speed analysis in cloud service. African Journal of Business Management, 6(8), 3059-3064.
115. Webster, C., & Sundaram, D. (1998). Service consumption criticality in failure recovery. Journal of Business Research, 41(2), 153-159.
116. Wen, B., & Chi, C. G. (2013). Examine the cognitive and affective antecedents to service recovery satisfaction: A field study of delayed airline passengers. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(3), 306-327.
117. Weun, S., Beatty, S. E., & Jones, M. A. (2004). The impact of service failure severity on service recovery evaluations andpost-recovery relationships. Journal of Services Marketing, 18(2), 133-146.
118. Wilson, A., Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J., & Gremler, D. D. (2012). Services marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm McGraw Hill.
119. Wirtz, J., & Mattila, A. S. (2004). Consumer responses to compensation, speed of recovery and apology after a service failure. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(2), 150-166.
120. World Health Organization. (1994). Lexicon of Psychiatric and Mental Health Terms. Geneva: World Health Organization.
121. Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (2004). Beyond valence in customer dissatisfaction: A review and new findings on behavioral responses to regret and disappointment in failed services. Journal of Business Research, 57(4), 445-455.
122. Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). Problems and strategies in services marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 49(2), 33-46.
123. Zuroff, D. C. (1986). Was gordon allport a trait theorist? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(5), 993-1000.
124. 經濟部統計處: http://www.moea.gov.tw/Mns/dos/home/Home.aspx
125. 葉樹菁(民96年)。中華民國96年臺灣地區國際觀光旅館營運分析報告。取自: http://library.tbroc.gov.tw/web/pdf/20090305112439.pdf
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2019-07-03公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-07-03起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信