淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-0207201322090700
中文論文名稱 體型對職業的影響─以半無母數模型分析
英文論文名稱 The impact of body size on occupation—a seminonparametric model analysis
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 產業經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Economics
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 李冠威
研究生英文姓名 Guan-Wei Lee
學號 600540065
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-06-13
論文頁數 67頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡登淵
委員-鄒孟文
委員-陳鎮洲
中文關鍵字 就業  職業  身體質量指數  兩階段半無母數 
英文關鍵字 Employment  Occupation  BMI  Seminonparametric two stage with sample selection 
學科別分類
中文摘要 過重與肥胖已經被WHO認為是全球主要的公共健康議題,過重與肥胖除了會影響健康與其醫療與保險等經濟成本之外,還會經由影響生產力,進而影響勞動市場表現。過去討論體型和勞動市場關係的文獻大多在討論體型與就業或薪資之間的關係,較少著墨於其與職業類別的關係。
鑒此,本文主要討論體型對於職業類別的影響,分別以BMI、相對BMI與過重(含過胖)代表體型,過重係使用世界衛生組織(WHO)以BMI界定的標準,即定義BMI大於25的體型為過重以上群體,此外,相關文獻中使用之模型常假設就業傾向服從常態分配,有別於文獻,本文採用假設分佈較具彈性的樣本選擇兩階段半無母數模型(Seminonparametric two stage with sample selection model)以進行估計。
研究資料係取自美國2010年國民健康調查(NHIS),因考量體型對職業類別影響可能存在內生性問題,本文使用Wooldridge (2010)中的Control Function approach處理內生性問題,使用睡眠不足虛擬變數當作工具變數。
結果顯示:體型會對較需要與人直接互動的服務類別職業有影響,男、女性BMI都對服務業有顯著影響關係。特別是過重體型對於服務業存在負面影響,分年齡層檢視可知:年輕過重女性對服務業有負向顯著影響,中年過重男性對服務業也有負向顯著影響,而老年過重的體型則對於服務業無顯著影響。關鍵字:就業、職業、身體質量指數、兩階段半無母數。
英文摘要 Overweight and obesity has been considered the worldwide major public health issues by WHO. Overweight and obesity will affect health, labor market outcomes and the economic costs. In the past, most labor market literature discussed the body size affecting employment and salary but less discussion on its relation with the occupational categories.
This study, hence, examines the impact of body size on occupational categories. It defines the body size based on BMI, relative BMI, or overweight or not. According to WHO, overweight (and obesity) is defined as one if BMI is greater than 25; zero otherwise. In the related literature on the analysis of employment, it is frequently assumed that the tendence of being employed follows a normal distribution. This study, therefore, uses a flexible distribution assumption by using the two-stage sample selection semi-nonparametric model.Data come from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of the U.S. In order to take the potential endogeneity of BMI into account, this thesis uses “the lack of sleep or not” as an instrumental variable by using Control Function approach.
The results indicate that BMI is significantly related to occupations Especially, overweight has negative effect on being employed in services industry. After considering the age cohorts separately, it finds that overweight has significantly negative effect on being employed in services industry for young females. Overweight also has significantly negative effect on being employed in services industry for middle-aged males. However, overweight is insignificant for elderly males and females.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 6
第三章 資料來源及變數定義 13
第一節 資料來源 13
第二節 樣本篩選 14
第三節 變數定義與敘述統計 17
第四章 實證模型設定 29
第五章 實證結果與分析 32
第一節 相對BMI與BMI對服務類型職業的影響 32
第二節 相對BMI與BMI對非服務類型職業的影響 39
第三節 分年齡層探討體型對服務類型職業的影響 45
第六章 結論 51
第一節 結論 51
第二節 研究限制與未來研究方向 53
參考文獻 54
附錄 58

表格 1 身形與勞動市場結果文獻比較表 11
表格 2 變數概述表 23
表格 3 男性敘述統計表 25
表格 4 女性敘述統計表 27
表格 5 相對BMI與服務業的SNP2S模型估計結果 35
表格 6 BMI與服務業的SNP2S模型估計結果 37
表格 7 相對BMI與非服務業的SNP2S模型估計結果 41
表格 8 BMI與非服務業的SNP2S模型估計結果 43
表格 9 過重年輕族群與服務業的SNP2S模型估計結果 48
表格 10 過重中年族群與服務業的SNP2S模型估計結果 49
表格 11 過重老年族群與服務業的SNP2S模型估計結果 50

圖 1 美國人口BMI分佈 4
圖 2 美國男性BMI分佈 4
圖 3 美國女性BMI分佈 5
圖 4 美國人口職業類別比例圓餅圖 15
圖 5 美國男性職業類別比例圓餅圖 16
圖 6 美國女性職業類別比例圓餅圖 16


附表 1 服務業、非服務業樣本分類 58
附表 2 工具變數檢定表 59
附表 3 工具變數檢定表(分年齡層) 60
附表 4 過重年輕族群與非服務業的SNP2S模型估計結果 61
附表 5 過重中年族群與非服務業的SNP2S模型估計結果 62
附表 6 過重老年族群與非服務業的SNP2S模型估計結果 63
附表 7 過重與非服務類型產業的SNP2S模型估計結果 64
附表 8 高中以下學歷與服務類型產業的SNP2S模型估計結果 65
附表 9 大學以上學歷與服務類型產業的SNP2S模型估計結果 66

附圖 1 其他種族中個別種族所佔比例 67

參考文獻 中文部分:
1. 侯季志、胡登淵(2012)體型對失業的影響─以半無母數分析。
2. 許雅棠、胡登淵、林東瓏(2011)相對體型對薪資的影響:台灣老少群體的半母數分析。2011台灣經濟學會年會。
3. 台灣勞工 no.12 世界主要國家婦女勞動力參與率情形及影響其變化之因素探討

英文部分:
1. BaumII , Ford (2004)“The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study.” Health Economics 13(9): 885–899.
2. Case, Anne, and Christina Paxson(2008)“Stature and Status: Height, ability, and labor market outcomes.”Journal of Political Economy 116(3): 499-532.
3. Cavelaars, Kunst, Geurts, Crialesi, Grotvedt, Helmert, Lahelma, Lundberg, Mielck, Rasmussen , Regidor, Spuhler, Mackenbach, (2000). Persistent variations in average height between countries and between socio-economic groups: an overview of 10 European countries. Ann. Hum. Biol. 27, 407–421.
4. Chou, Grossman, Saffer, (2004). An economic analysis of adult obesity: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. J. Health Econ. 23, 565–587.
5. Detournay, Fagnani, Phillippo, Pribil, Charles, Sermet, Basdevant, Eschwege, (2000). Obesity morbidity and health care costs in France: an analysis of the 1991–1992 Medical Care Household Survey. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 24, 151–155.
6. De Luca, Giuseppe(2008) “SNP and SML estimation of univariate and bivariate binary–choice models.” The Stata Journal(2008) Volume 08, Number 2:190-220.
7. Flegal , Katherine ,Carroll, Cynthia L. Ogden, and Johnson(2002). “Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among U.S. Adults, 1999– 2000.” JAMA. 288(14):1723– 27.
8. Flegal, Graubard, Williamson, Gail, (2005). Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 293, 1861–1867.
9. Finkelstein, Fiebelkorn, Wang, (2004). State-level estimates of annual medical expenditures attributable to obesity. Obes. Res. 12, 18–24.
10. Finkelstein, DeMuth, Sweeney. (2007). “Bias against overweight job applicants: More explorations of when and why.”Human Resource Management, 46, 203-222.
11. Finkelstein , Ruhm, Kosa (2005)“Economic causes and consequences of obesity.”Annu Rev Public Health.26,239-257.
12. Fuchs, (2004). Reflections on the socio-economic correlates of health. J. Health Econ. 23, 653–661.
13. Freedman, Daniel (1979). Human Sociobiology. New York: Free Press.
14. Garcı´a Quintana-Domeque (2006) “Body size, activity, employment and wages in europe: a first approach.”Economics Working Papers, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
15. Greene (1988) “Economics courses in liberal arts colleges: further results.”J Econ Educ 29(4):291-300.
16. Gortmaker, Must , Perrin , Sobol , Dietz (1993)“Social and economic consequences of overweight in adolescences and young adulthood.” New England Journal of Medicine 329(14): 1008–1012.
Averett , Korenman (1996)“The economic reality of the beauty myth.” Journal of Human Resources 31: 304–330.
17. Haddad, Lawrence and Howarth Bouis(1991)“The impact of nutritional status on agricultural productivity: Wage evidence from the Philippines.”Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 53: 45-68.
18. Health Economics.20:(2011) 1468-1486
19. Hensley, Wayne (1993)“Height as a measure of success in academe.”Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior 30: 40-46.
20. Hamermesh, Daniel and Jeff , Biddle(1994)“Beauty and the labor market.”American Economic Review 84(5): 1174-1194.
21. Harper (2000)“ Beauty, stature and the labor market: a british cohort study.” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 62: 771–800.
22. Harper, Khan, Saxena,and Leeson (2006). Attitudes and practices of employers towards ageing workers: Evidence from a global survey on the future of retirement. Ageing Horizons, (5), 31-41.
23. Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Susan Calhoun, Edward Bixler, Slobodanka Pejovic, Maria Karataraki, Duanping Liao, Antonio Vela-Bueno, Ramos-Platon, Katherine A. Sauder, Alexandros Vgontzas.(2010)“Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Deficits in Neuropsychological Performance: A General Population Study.”SLEEP 33(4):459-465.
24. Kaan Tunceli, Kemeng , and Keoki Williams(2006).“Long-Term Effects of Obesity on Employment and Work Limitations Among U.S. Adults, 1986 to 1999.”Obesity Vol. 14 NO.9 September 1637-1645.
25. Loh, Eng Sang(1993)“The economic effects of physical appearance.”Social Science Quarterly 74: 420-438.
26. Lakdawalla , Bhattacharta , Goldeman (2004)“Are the young becoming more disabled?”Health Aff(Millwood).23,168-176.
27. Maillard, Charles, Thibult, Forhan, Sermet, Basdevant, Eschwege, (1999). Trends in the prevalence of obesity in the French adult population between 1980 and 1991. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 23, 389–394.
28. Meliyanni Johar and Hajime Katayama(2012)“Quantile regression analysis of body mass and wages.”Health Economics.21: 597-611.
29. Morris (2004) “The impact of obesity on employment in England.” Tanaka Business School Discussion Paper, Imperial College London.
30. Pagan , Davila (1997)“Obesity, occupational attainment and earnings.”Social Science Quarterly 78(3): 756–770.
31. Paraponaris , Saliba , Ventelou (2005) “Obesity, weight status and employability: empirical evidence from a French national survey.”Econ Hum Biol. 3:241-58.
32. Persico, Nicola, Andrew Postlewaite, and Daniel Silverman(2004)“The effect of adolescent experience on labor market outcomes: The case of height.”Journal of Political Economy 112: 1019-1053.
33. Puhl, Brownell, (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Obes. Res. 9, 788–805.
34. Sargent , Blanchflower (1994)“ Obesity and stature in adolescence and earnings in young adulthood–analysis of a British birth cohort.” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 148: 681–687.
35. Strauss, John and Duncan Thomas(1998)“Health, nutrition, and economic development.”Journal of Economic Literature 36(2): 766-817.
36. Sturm , Ringel , Andreyeva (2004)“Increasing obesity rates and disability trends.”Health Aff.23,199-205.
37. Tom Vogl(2011) “Height, skills, and labor market outcomes in mexico.”NBER Working Paper No. 18318.
38. Wooldridge (2010). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data second edition.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2013-07-04公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2013-07-04起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信