淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-0207201214271700
中文論文名稱 幽默領導行為與團隊衝突對團隊創新與團隊凝聚力影響之研究
英文論文名稱 The influence on team innovation and cohesion by humor leadership and team conflict
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 陳怡如
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Ru Chen
學號 799610174
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-05-31
論文頁數 144頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪英正
共同指導教授-張敬珣
委員-陳學志
委員-楊立人
中文關鍵字 幽默領導  團隊衝突  團隊創新  團隊凝聚力 
英文關鍵字 Humor leadership  team conflict  team innovation  team cohesion 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 金融海嘯發生至今,全球競爭發展愈劇,企業開始思索與著重於創新,職場走向專業分工,必須仰賴團隊力量,而團隊要有凝聚力,才能發揮相互合作精神。幽默感是職場的潤滑劑,它可以增進人際關係,紓解尷尬和挫折時的負面情緒,有幽默感的人,在職場上是贏家,較容易親近且可與團隊共同面對挑戰,Avolio et al.(1999)指出若領導者的使用幽默的方式會產生出較高的員工承諾、團結向心力與績效,Muhammad Irbaz Khan(2010)則指出幽默能強化在生產力和效率。而當組織發生衝突情況時會影響到團隊成員的工作氣氛,進而使工作效率低落,並導致組織效能下降,因此領導被賦予的意義,就是要帶領組織做「對」的事,作「對」的決策,但要有效處理衝突,並將負面影響轉換成正面力量,正是企業必須學習到的重要課題,Cooperrider(2005)認為領導的元素和衝突的包容性提高了員工對組織的參與感並增強創新和承諾的因素。
本研究以國內各大企業、機構之工作者為對象,以便利抽樣的方式發放問卷,共發放230份問卷,回收225份有效問卷,有效回收率約為98%。研究結果發現︰
1.幽默領導行為與團隊衝突無顯著關係。
2.幽默領導行為與團隊衝突對團隊創新有顯著影響,其中幽默領導行為對團隊創新有正向顯著影響,團隊衝突對團隊創新則有負向顯著影響。
3.幽默領導行為與團隊衝突對團隊凝聚力有顯著影響,其中幽默領導行為對團隊凝聚力有正向顯著影響,團隊衝突對團隊凝聚力則有負向顯著影響。
4.領導者在幽默領導行為與團隊衝突之不同,會在團隊創新上有顯著差異。
5.領導者在幽默領導行為與團隊衝突之不同,會在團隊凝聚力上有顯著差異。
6.員工在部分人口統計變項之不同,會在幽默領導行為、團隊衝突、團隊創新、團隊凝聚力上有顯著差異。
本研究透過幽默領導與團隊衝突之相關分析結果得知,擁有高度幽默領導風格之主管在對於團隊衝突的化解,雖不必然高於低度幽默領導風格的主管,但善用幽默領導必能有助於降低衝突事件,對團隊間創新能力與凝聚力的有其正向影響。
英文摘要 In light of the financial tsunami, competitions around the global become fiercer. Companies around the world continue devoting themselves to innovation, adopt the model of professional division of labor, and rely more on teamwork and team cohesion is to the key to the success of the business. Using humor as a business lubricant can help improve interpersonal relationships, make light in an awkward situation, and ill feelings. People with a good sense of humor are already in a winning position, easier to get along with and always ready to tackle challenges with their team. Avolio et al.(1999)had pointed out that a leader with humor leadership will facilitate higher employees’ commitment, cohesion and performance. Muhammad Irbaz Khan(2010) found that humor leadership can improve productivity and efficacy. Team conflict can result in an unfavorable work environment and thereby has a negative impact on work efficiency and the productivity of an organization. Leaders are to lead an organization to do “right” things and make “correct” decisions and, at the same time, to deal with conflicts effectively and efficiently. How to turn a negative force to positive energy is an important lesson what each business must learn. Cooperrider(2005) claimed that the elements of leadership and endurance of conflict can enhance employees’ participation and increase their innovation and commitment.
The survey of this study was distributed to 230 individuals serving at various local companies by using the method of convenience sampling and a total of 225 questionnaires were returned. The results of the study indicate the followings:
1. Humor leadership is not significantly related to team conflict.
2. There is a significant positive influence on team innovation by humor leadership , but there is a significant negative influence on team innovation by team conflict .
3. There is a significant positive influence on team cohesion by humor leadership , but there is a significant negative influence on team cohesion by team conflict .
4. Different humor leadership and team conflict make a significant difference in team innovation.
5. Different humor leadership and team conflict make a significant difference in team cohesion.
6. Various demographic groups makes partial significant difference on humor leadership, team conflict, team innovation, and team cohesion.
According to the results of the study on humor leadership and team conflict, it is to say that although the management with a higher humor is not inevitable to possess a better ability to cope with team conflicts than that with a lower sense of humor. But by this study we know that leading and managing an organization with a sense of humor can, without a doubt, help decreasing the team conflict and improving the impact on team innovation and team cohesion.
論文目次 目錄...................................I
表目錄................................II
圖目錄...............................III
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究目的 8
第三節 研究流程 9
第二章 文獻探討 11
第一節 幽默領導之定義與來源 11
第二節 團隊衝突 20
第三節 團隊創新氣候 25
第四節 團隊凝聚力 32
第五節 各變項間之交互關係 34
第三章 研究方法 37
第一節 研究架構 37
第二節 研究假設 38
第三節 研究變項之定義與衡量 39
第四節 研究對象與抽樣設計 46
第五節 資料分析 46
第四章 研究結果 48
第一節 問卷題意確認 48
第二節 問卷調查與資料陳述 49
第三節 因素分析與信度分析 58
第四節 研究變項之迴歸分析與假說驗證 68
第五節 不同人口統計變項對之幽默領導、團隊衝突、團隊創新與團隊凝聚力之差異 83
第六節 假設驗證結果 104
第五章 結論、討論及建議 106
第一節 研究結論 106
第二節 管理意涵 114
第三節 研究建議 118
第四節 研究限制 120
參考文獻 121
中文部分 121
網路及報章雜誌部份 123
英文部分 125
附錄:研究調查問卷 130
附錄:修正後研究調查問卷 137

表目錄
表2-1 領導理論之發展取向 12
表2-2 台灣著名的成功企業家的領導風格表 12
表2-2 台灣著名的成功企業家的領導風格表(續) 13
表2-3 團隊創新相關文獻整理 27
表2-3 團隊創新相關文獻整理(續) 28
表2-4 各學者對於團隊凝聚力的定義 32
表3-1 幽默領導量表 40
表3-1 幽默領導量表(續) 41
表3-2 團隊衝突各構面及題項 42
表3-3 團隊創新氣候之構面及題項 44
表3-4 團隊凝聚力題項 45
表 4-1信度分析結果 48
表4-2 問卷回收統計 49
表4-3樣本人口屬性統計表 50
表4-4樣本人口屬性統計表 51
表4-5樣本人口屬性統計表 53
表4-5樣本人口屬性統計表(續) 54
表4-6樣本人口屬性統計表 56
表4-6樣本人口屬性統計表 57
表4-7幽默領導之KMO與Bartlett檢定 58
表4-8幽默領導導向之因數分析、信度分析與命名 59
表4-8幽默領導導向之因數分析、信度分析與命名(續) 60
表4-9對直屬主管的喜歡程度對幽默領導行為之T檢定分析 62
表4-10直屬主管幽默程度對幽默領導行為之T檢定分析 62
表4-11樂於繼續接受主管領導程度對幽默領導行為之T檢定分析 63
表4-12直屬主管在領導能力的表現程度對幽默領導行為之T檢定分析 63
表4-13團隊衝突之KMO與Bartlett檢定 64
表4-14團隊衝突之因數分析、信度分析與命名 64
表4-15團隊創新之KMO與Bartlett檢定 65
表4-16團隊創新之因數分析、信度分析與命名 66
表4-17團隊凝聚力之KMO與Bartlett檢定 67
表4- 18團隊創新之因數分析、信度分析與命名 67
表4-19幽默領導行為與團隊衝突的相關分析表 68
表4-20幽默領導行為導向與團隊衝突對團隊創新之迴歸分析表 70
表4-21幽默領導各因素與團隊衝突對團隊創新之複迴歸分析表 71
表4-22幽默領導各因素與團隊衝突對其團隊創新之願景建立與認同複迴歸分析表 72
表4-23幽默領導各因素與團隊衝突對其團隊創新之資訊揭露與創新具有顯著的影響複迴歸分析表 74
表4- 24幽默領導行為導向與團隊衝突導向對團隊凝聚力之迴歸分析表 75
表4- 25幽默領導各因素與團隊衝突對團隊凝聚力之複迴歸分析表 76
表4-26不同的幽默領導行為與團隊衝突在員工所認知的團隊創新上會有顯著差異之ANOVA檢定表 78
表4-27不同的幽默領導行為與不同的團隊衝突在團隊創新之交互作用 78
表4- 28不同的幽默領導行為與團隊衝突在員工所認知的團隊凝聚力上會有顯著差異之ANOVA檢定表 80
表4-29不同的幽默領導行為與不同的團隊衝突在團隊凝聚力之交互作用 81
表4-30性別在各變項之T檢定 83
表4-30性別在各變項之T檢定(續) 84
表4-31婚姻狀況在各變項之T檢定 85
表4-31婚姻狀況在各變項之T檢定(續) 86
表4-32年齡在各變項之ANOVA檢定表 86
表4-32年齡在各變項之ANOVA檢定表(續) 87
表4-32年齡在各變項之ANOVA檢定表(續) 88
表4-33學歷在各構面之ANOVA檢定表 89
表4- 33學歷在各構面之ANOVA檢定表(續) 90
表4- 33學歷在各構面之ANOVA檢定表(續) 91
表4-34組織內任職的資歷在各構面之ANOVA檢定表 92
表4- 34組織內任職的資歷在各構面之ANOVA檢定表(續) 93
表4-35直屬主管性別在各變項之T檢定 94
表4- 36直屬主管年齡在各變項之ANOVA檢定表 95
表4- 36直屬主管年齡在各變項之ANOVA檢定表(續) 96
表4- 36直屬主管年齡在各變項之ANOVA檢定表(續) 97
表4- 37直屬主管在目前工作的年資在各構面之ANOVA檢定表 98
表4- 37直屬主管在目前工作的年資在各構面之ANOVA檢定表(續) 99
表4- 37直屬主管在目前工作的年資在各構面之ANOVA檢定表(續) 100
表4-38直屬主管的學歷在各構面之ANOVA檢定表 101
表4- 38直屬主管的學歷在各構面之ANOVA檢定表(續) 102
表4- 38直屬主管的學歷在各構面之ANOVA檢定表(續) 103


圖目錄

圖1-1 研究流程圖 10
圖3-1 研究架構圖 37



參考文獻 中文部分
1.王淳美 (2011) 。臺北市國民小學校長領導取向與衝突管理效果之研究。國立臺北教育大學。臺北市。
2.宋鎮照(2000)。團體動力學。台北市:五南出版社。
3.沈靖宜(2006) 。幽默幽默領導之初探。淡江大學。臺北市。
4.林明雀,(2009)。團隊多元化對團隊創新影響之探討—以家長式領導和多元化開放性為干擾變數。中原大學。桃園縣。
5.林亮宏(2011)。領導風格、團隊玩興氣氛、團隊衝突與團隊績效之研究。國立高雄應用科技大學。高雄市。
6.林俊延,(2010)。家長式教練領導與同儕領導對團隊凝聚力和團隊效能之關係。國立臺北教育大學。臺北市。
7.張永文 (2007) 。國中棒球選手知覺教練領導行為與團隊凝聚力相關之研究。國立臺北教育大學。臺北市。
8.陳展宇(2011) 。撼動你心─敘說探究一位新創國中女校長的領導心法與衝突管理經驗。崑山科技大學。臺北市。
9.陳學偉,(2009)。國小樂樂棒球運動員知覺教練領導行為、領導信任與團隊凝聚力之研究。大葉大學。臺北市。
10.傅陞瑋(2010) 。幽默領導對工作滿意之影響-工作特性與工作壓力為中介變項。淡江大學。臺北市。
11.黃國展,(2011)。團隊結構特色、轉換型領導與衝突對團隊績效影響之研究-以中部餐飲服務業為例。亞洲大學。臺北市。
12.黃婉惠(2008) 。幽默領導因果模式之實證研究。淡江大學。臺北市。
13.黃雯琳,2010。國小足球選手知覺運動教練領導行為與團隊凝聚力之相關研究。臺北市立體育學院。臺北市。
14.黃嬿蓉,(2010)。護理團隊創新效能與轉換型領導風格和團隊氣候關係之探討。長庚大學。桃園縣。
15.黃瓊億(2009) 。團隊創新氛圍與團隊認知閉合需求對資訊分享與創新績效的影響 。臺灣大學。臺北市。
16.楊美玉(2008) 。領導行為對部屬衝突管理策略的影響。臺灣大學。臺北市。
17.蕭瑤冠(2009) 。組織結構隊員工創新行為與主從關係之影響-以幽默領導為中介變數。淡江大學。臺北市。
18.蘇名科,(2005)。領導者與團隊目標導向對團隊創新、成員創新行為的影響—團隊創新氣候的中介效果。東吳大學。臺北市。



網路及報章雜誌部份
1.佚名(2010.05)。用幽默提升你的領導魅力。【部落格文字資料】。取自http://hi.baidu.com/adviserhsu/blog/item/142ec90b868e418ed1581bb1.html
2.黑幼龍(2011.06.15) 。幽默,是最高明的領導方式。【部落格文字資料】。取自http://www.cw.com.tw/blog/blogTopic.action?id=10andnid=145
3.佚名(無顯示)。勇於創新,掌握機會 。【部落格文字資料】。http://www.inex.twmail.net/temp/p01/136.htm
4.祝康偉(2009.1)。為應變者能僥倖。【部落格文字資料】。http://liveintaipei.pixnet.net/blog/post/25685430
5.祝康偉(2009.1)。老二的翻身之道:從裡到外都敢變。【部落格文字資料】。http://liveintaipei.pixnet.net/blog/post/25685333
6.張志豪(2011.8)。辦公室溝通學-拿出你的幽默感。【新聞群組】自由時報電子報。http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2011/new/aug/3/today-work2.htm
7.許龍君(2004.04)台灣世界級企業家領導風範。台北市:智庫文化。
8.祝康偉(2003)就業情報雜誌第328期。
9.胡秀珠(2010.12) 創新發現誌第201012期。 接上雲端 打開服務大門。。
10.大前研一謝育容譯(2006.03)創新者的思考:看見生意與創意的,源頭,商業周刊出版社。
11.張寶誠(2010.11) 企業創新 要快也要穩。【新聞群組】經濟日報。取自http://pro.udnjob.com/mag2/hr/storypage.jsp?f_ART_ID=60431
12.Robert Half International專才招聘顧問公司(2008.1.)。職場風雲-工作與幽默感並存 。都市日報。取自:http://dan-hk.blogspot.com/2008/01/blog-post_15.html
13.晉麗明(2007.11) 談組織團隊互動與衝突管理。【新聞群組】獵才月刊第13期。取自http://www.104hunter.com.tw/edm/BEP00-00001-1127/06.htm
14.楊志鴻(2010)。國中排球選手知覺教練領導行爲與團隊凝聚力之研究。排球教練科學,15,15-21。(2010)。國中排球選手知覺教練領導行爲與團隊凝聚力之研究。排球教練科學,15,15-21。
15.余嬪(2004)。<樂在工作-組織玩興研究>。《高雄師大學學報》(台灣),16 期,19-37。
16.余嬪、吳靜吉、林偉文、楊潔欣(2003)。成人玩興量表與組織玩興氣氛量表之發展。中國測驗學會測驗學刊,50(1)。
17.Abedi, Abbas (Introductory comments by Royane Real).”You Can Use Your Sense of Humor to Gain More Friends.” Royane Real. 2009. Nov. 28, 2011。取自:http://www.royane.com/articles/friendship/friendship/203‐you‐can‐use‐your‐sense‐of‐humor‐to‐gain‐morefriends.
18.eHow Contributor. “How to Use Humor in the Workplace.” Demand Media, Inc. Feb. 16, 2011.Nov. 29, 2011 。取自:http://www.ehow.com/how_2060511_use‐humor‐workplace.html.

英文部分

1.Alper, S., Tjosvold, D. and Law, K. S.(2000), "Conflict management, efficacy and performance in organizational teams," Personnel Psych., 53, 625-642.
2.Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organization. In B. M. Staw., and L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior . 23-167. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
3.Amason, A. C. and Schweiger, D. M.(1994), Resolving the paradox of conflict, strategic decision making and organizational performance., International Journal of Conflict Management, 5, 239.
4.Anderson, N. R., and West, M. A. (1994), The Team Climate Inventory. Manual and Users’ Guide, Assessment Services for Employment, NFER-Nelson,Windsor, U.K.
5.Argyris, C. and Schön, D., Organizational Learning, Addison-Wesley, MA, 1983.
6.Audrey Charbonnier-Voirin, Assâad El Akremi, and Christian Vandenberghe(2010),A Multilevel Model of Transformational Leadership and Adaptive Performance and the Moderating Role of Climate for Innovation, 699-726.
7.Avolio, B. J., Howell, J. M., and Sosik, J. J. (1999). A funny thing happened on the way to the bottom line: Humor as a moderator of leadership style effects. Academy of Management Journal, 42(2), 219-227.
8.Axtell, C. M., Holman, D. J., Unsworth, K. L., Wall, T. D., Waterson, P. E. and Harrington, E., (2000)."Shopfloor innovation: Facilitating the suggestion and implementation of ideas," J. Occupational Organ. Psych., 73, 265-285.
9.Barbour, G. (1998). Want to be a successful manager? Now that's a laughing matter!. PM. Public Management, 80(7), 6-9.
10.Barker, J., Tjosvold, D. and Andrews I. R.(1988), Conflict approaches of effective and ineffective managers: A Field Study in a Matrix Organization, Journal of Management Studies, 25, 167.
11.Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdilrs handbook of leadership: Theory, research and managerial applications (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.
12.Beal, D. J., Cohen, R. R., Burke, M. J. and McLendon, C. L.(2003), "Cohesion and performance in groups: A meta-analytic clarification of construct relations," J. Appl. Psych., 88, 989-1004.
13.Bennis, Warren and Robert Thomas (2002). The alchemy of leadership. CIO Magazine, Dec 1.5: 1.
14.Berger A.A. (1987). Humor; American Behavioral Scientist; 30:6–15
15.Bowers L (2006). On conflict, containment and the relationship between them. Nurs Inq 13(3):172–180.
16.Bowers L (2007) .Multivariate testing of a model of staff factors in the determination of levels of conflict and containment on acute psychiatric wards. Psychiatric Services.
17.Bowers L, Hackney D, Nijman H et al (2007). A longitudinal study of conflict and containment on acute psychiatric wards. Report to the Department of Health. City University, London.
18.Brewer, Neil, Patricia Mitchell, and Nathan Weber (2002) Gender role, organizational status, and conflict management styles. International journal of conflict management 13,1.1: 78-94.
19.Cardinal, L. B.(2001), "Technological innovation in the pharmaceutical industry: The use of organizational control in managing research and development, 12, 19-36.
20.Carron, A. (1982), Cohesiveness in sport groups :Interpretations and considerations. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 123-138.
21.Chen, Guoquan, Tjosvold, Dean(2002), Conflict management and team effectiveness in China: The mediating role of justice, Asia Pacific Journal of Management,19(4), 557.
22.Cooper, C. (2008). Elucidating the bonds of workplace humor: A relational process model. Human Relations, 61(8), 1087-1115.
23.Coser, R. (1960). Laughter among colleagues: A study of social functions of humor among the staff of a mental hospital, Psychiatry, 23, 81–95.
24.Cronin, M. A. and Weingart, L. R.(2007), "Representational gaps, information processing, and conflict in functionally diverse teams," Acad. Management Rev,32, 761-773.
25.De Dreu, C. K. W., and West, M. A. (2001), Minority dissert and team innovation: The importance of participation in decision-making. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 1191-1201.
26.Decker, W. H., and Rotondo, D. M. (2001). Relationships among gender, type of humor, and perceived leader effectiveness. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13,450-465.
27.Decker, Wayne and Denise Rotondo (2001). Relationships among gender, type of humor, and perceived leader effectiveness. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13.4: 451–65.
28.Dougherty, D.(2001), "Reimagining the differentiation and integration of work for sustained product innovation,12, 612-631.
29.Dougherty, D., Clegg, S. R., Hardy, C., Lawrence, T. B. and Nord, W. R.(2006). "Organizing for innovation in the 21st century," The Sage Handbook of Organization Studies, Sage Publications, London, 598-617.
30.Duncan, W. Jack and J. Philip Feisal (1989). No laughing matter: Patterns of humor in the workplace. Organizational Dynamics, 17.3: 18–30. Ford, Jackie (2006).
31.Ford, Jacob S.(2001).Humor and Leader-Member Exchange : how can a leader use different types of humor to create in-groups and out-groups? Baylor University. Dept e, MA.
32.Gebert, D. and Boerner, S.(1999). "The open and the closed corporation as conflicting forms of organization," J. Appl. Behav. Sci., 35,341-359.
33.Gross, Michael A, and Laura K. Guerrero (2000) .Managing conflict appropriately and effectively: An application of the competence model to Rahim’s organizational conflict styles. International journal of conflict management 11.3: 200-226.
34.Hay, Jennifer (2001). The pragmatics of humor support. Humor, 14.1: 55–82.
35.Holmes, J., and Marra, M. (2006). Humor and leadership style. Humor: International Journal of Humor Studies, 19(2), 119-138.
36.Holmes, Janet (2006). Sharing a laugh: Pragmatic aspects of humor and gender in the workplace. Journal of Pragmatics, 38: 26–50.
37.Holmes, Janet and Meredith Marra (2002). Having a laugh at work: How humor contributes to workplace culture. Journal of Pragmatics, 34: 1683–710.
38.Holmes, Janet, and Maria Stubbe (2001) Managing conflict at work. Paper presented at AAAL Conference, St Louis.
39.Hurren, B. L. (2006). The effect of principals' humor on teachers' job satisfaction. Educational Studies, 32(4), 373-385.
40.Jehn, K. A. (1997), “A qualitative analysis of conflict types and dimensions in organizational groups,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 530-558.
41.Jehn, K. A., and Mannix, E. A. (2001). The dynamic nature of conflict : A longitudinal study of intragroup conflict and group performance. Academy of Management Journal. 44(2):238-251.
42.Konstantinos C. Kostopoulos and Nikos Bozionelos (2011).Team Exploratory and Exploitative Learning: Psychological Safety, Task Conflict, and Team Performance ,36, 3: 385-415.
43.Linstead, Steve (1988). “Jokers wild‟: Humor in organizational culture. In Chris Powell and George E. C. Paton (eds), Humor in Society. Resistance and Control. London: Macmillan. 123–48.
44.Lord, R. G. and Brown, D. J.(2001). "Leadership, values, and subordinate self-concepts," Leadership Quart., 12, 133-152.
45.Lovelace, K., Shapiro, D. and Weingart, L. R.(2001). "Maximizing cross-functional new product teams' innovativeness and constraint adherence: A conflict communications perspective," Acad. Management J.,44, 779-793.
46.McLeod, P. L., Lobel, S. A., and Cox, T. H. (1996). Ethnic diversity and creativity in small groups. Small Group Research, 27, 248-264.
47.Morreall, John. (2008) .“Applications of Humor: Health, The Workplace, and Education” Raskin: 449-478.
48.Mullany, Louise (2004). Gender, politeness and institutional power roles: Humor as a tactic to gain compliance in workplace business meetings. Multilingua, 23: 13–37.
49.Nijstad, B. A., and De Dreu, C. K. W. (2002). Creativity and group innovation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 400-406.
50.Oetzel, J., Ting-Toomey, S., Masumoto, T., Yokochi, Y., Pan, X., Takai, J., and Wilcox, R. (2001). Face and facework in conflict: A cross-cultural comparison of China, Germany, Japan, and the United States. Communication Monographs, 68(3), 235-258.
51.Pelled, L. H., Xin, K. R., and Weiss, A. M. (2001). No es como mi: Relational demography and conflict in a Mexican production facility. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 74: 63-84.
52.Priest, R. E, and Swain, J.E. (2002). Humor and its implications for leadership effectiveness. Humor: International Journal of Humor Studies, 15(2), 169-189.
53.Reichers, Arnon E.(1986). Conflict and organizational commitments, Journal ofApplied Psychology, 71(3), 508.
54.Robbins, S. P.(2006).Organizational behavior(8th ed.)Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:Prentice- Hall Inc.
55.Robinson, S. L. (1996). Trust and breach of the psychological contract, Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(4), 574-599.
56.Romero, E. J., and Cruthirds, K. W. (2006). The use of humor in the workplace. Academy of Management Perspectives, 20(2). 58-59.
57.Schnurr, S. (2008). Surviving in a man's world with a sense of humour: An analysis of women leaders' use Vecchio, R. P., Justin, J. E., and Pearce, C. L. (2009). The influence of leader humor on relationships between leader behavior and follower outcomes. Journal of Managerial Issues, 21, 171-194. of humour at work. Leadership, 4(3), 299-319.
58.Schnurr, S. (2009). Constructing leader identities through teasing at work. Journal of Pragmatics, 41, 1125-1138.
59.Shamir, B. (1995). Social distance and charisma: Theoretical notes and an exploratory study. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 19-48.
60.Smith, W. J., Harrington, K. V., & Neck, C. P. (2000). Resolving conflict with humor in a diversity context. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15, 606-622.
61.Tjosvold, D., De Dreu, C. K. W. and Van de Vliert, E.(1997). "Conflict within interdependence: Its value for productivity and individuality," Using Conflict in Organizations, Sage Publications, London, 39-52.
62.Tourish, D. & Jackson, B. (2008). “Communication and leadership: An open invitation to engage' (Guest editorial), Leadership, 4, 3: 219-225
63.Tushman, M. L. and O'Reilly, C. A.(2000), Winning through Innovation: A Practical Guide to Leading Organizational Change and Renewal, Harvard Business School Press, Cambridge, MA.
64.West, M. A. (2002). Sparkling foundains or stagnant pounds: An integrative model of creativity and innovation implementation in work groups. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 355-424.
65.West, M. A., Sacramento, C. A., and Fay, D. (2006). Creativity and innovation implementation in work groups: The paradoxical role of demands. In L. L. Thompson. and H. S. Choi (Eds.), Creativity and Innovation in Organizational Teams. (pp.137-159). Lawrence Erlbaum Association, Mahwah: New Jersey.
66.White C, Howse E (1993). Managing humour: when is it funny and when is it not? Nursing Management 24 (4) 80-96.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2017-07-05公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2017-07-05起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信