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中文論文名稱 雷諾應力對溶血效應研究
英文論文名稱 The Investigation of the Effects of Reynolds Shear Stresses on Hemolysis
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 林志誠
研究生英文姓名 Chih-Cheng Lin
學號 696480044
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-06-24
論文頁數 59頁
口試委員 指導教授-盧博堅
委員-丁大為
委員-陳俊成
中文關鍵字 溶血  噴射流  雷射都卜勒測速儀  雷諾應力  黏滯切應力 
英文關鍵字 hemolysis  jet flow  LDV  Reynolds shear stress  viscous shear stress 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 由於血液流經人工器官時,紅血球受到非生理流況產生應力使其外膜破裂,釋放出血紅素到血漿中。而血漿中的自由血紅素是含有毒性的,會造成腎臟及其他器官的衰竭,因此在研發人工器官時,都不期望血球遭受到破壞而引發溶血。故本實驗利用噴射流來形成亂流場,流場量測則使用二維雷射都卜勒測速儀,得知流場的分佈,再將清洗過的血球置入流場中進行溶血實驗。雷諾應力及黏滯切應力常被用來估算溶血,因此引用過去學者所做的研究進行驗證的工作。雷諾應力跟隨Sallam所做的實驗,驗證了雷諾應力值為400Pa時血球會遭受到破壞,但本實驗經過主軸平面的轉換後雷諾應力的閥值應為800Pa。而黏滯切應力則利用本實驗做出來的數據計算出來的黏滯切應力大小均符合Jones的研究結果,卻和Quinlan and Dooley的實驗結果有所差別,其中機制尚有待研究。
英文摘要 When blood passes through the artificial organ, membranes of red blood cells crack due to the shear stress generated by nonphysical flow condition, thus hemoglobin are released from red blood cells and flow into plasma. These free hemoglobin in plasma are toxic. They may cause kidneys or other organ failures. Therefore, under the research and development process of artificial organs, preventing the destruction of blood cells that can lead to hemolysis is certainly the top priority. For this reason, this study aims to create turbulence fields by means of a jet flow, and measure the distribution of flow field and turbulent stresses by using a two dimensional laser Doppler anemometer (LDV). The washed porcine blood cells are then put into the flow field to do the hemolytic experiment. The thresholds of the Reynolds shear stress and viscous shear stress are usually put to use to measure the hemolysis. In comparision with previous researchers, this study well compare with that of Sallam and Hwang measured the Reynolds shear stress in free turbulent jet flow and reported values of 400 N/m2 .However, in this study Reynolds shear stress is at 800 N/m2 after the shift between principal axis and plane. Moreover, the quantity of viscous shear stress confirm the results of Jones’s study but one magnitude smaller than that of Quinlan and Dooley’s research. The reason still needs to be further discovered.
論文目次 目 錄
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究動機和目的 2
1-3研究過程 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1噴射流 4
2-2應力對血球的影響 6
第三章 實驗設置、方法及資料分析 8
3-1 噴射流場的設置 8
3-2 流場量測 9
3-2-1 雷射測速儀量測原理 9
3-2-2 雷射測速儀量測系統 12
3-2-3 量測位置 14
3-2-4 資料擷取與資料分析 14
3-2-4.1 資料擷取 14
3-2-4.2 資料分析 15
3-3 動物血液的處理 18
3-4 取樣位置 19
3-5 血液分析 21
3-6 實驗條件 24
第四章 結果與討論 25
4-1 流場分析 25
4-1-1 速度分佈 25
4-1-2 雷諾切應力分佈 25
4-1-3 亂流強度 27
4-1-4 能譜密度函數 27
4-1-5 泰勒微長度尺度及最小亂流尺度 27
4-2血液分析 29
第五章 結論與建議 35

圖目錄
圖3 - 1流場配置圖 40
圖3 - 2三次曲線圖 41
圖3 - 3實驗流程圖 42
圖3 - 4離心機 43
圖3 - 5注射器幫浦 43
圖3 - 6粒子計數器 44
圖3 - 7分光光譜儀 44
圖 3 - 8不同濃度標準曲線圖(a) 45
圖 3 - 9不同濃度標準曲線圖(b) 45
圖 3 - 10不同濃度標準曲線圖(c) 46
圖 3 - 11超音波細胞打碎機 47
圖 4 - 1為噴口速度Ue =9.03m/s流場的速度剖面圖 48
圖 4 - 2為噴口速度Ue =9.03m/s流場的速度等量圖 49
圖 4 - 3為噴口速度Ue=9.03m/s流場的雷諾切應力剖面圖 50
圖 4 - 4為噴口速度Ue=9.03m/s流場的雷諾切應力等量線圖 51
圖 4 - 5為噴口速度Ue =9.03m/s流場的軸向亂流強度分佈圖 52
圖 4 - 6為噴口速度Ue =9.03m/s流場的側向亂流強度分佈圖 53
圖 4 - 7為噴口速度Ue =9.03m/s延Y=R量測線之頻譜函數圖 54
圖 4 - 8為噴口速度Ue =9.03m/s之泰勒微長度尺度圖 55
圖 4 - 9為噴口速度Ue =9.03m/s之Kolmogorov長度尺度分佈圖56
圖 4 - 10溶血參數相對於RSS(Pa)比較圖 57
圖 4 - 11能量頻譜無因次化的延伸 58
圖 4 - 12能量頻譜乘上k22的延伸 59


表目錄
表4 – 1 RSS與RSS-Maj的差異比較 26
表4 – 2 血液分析和應力值的關係 29
表4 – 3 本實驗計算出來的結果 32
表4 – 4 Jones利用文獻計算出來的結果 32
表4 – 5 本實驗各量測點的應力值 34
表4 – 6 Quinlan and Dooley量測點的應力值 34

參考文獻 References
[1]Sallam, A. H., and Hwang, N. H. C., 1984, "Human red blood cell hemolysis in turbulent shear flow: Contributions of Reynolds shear stresses," Biorheology, Vol.21, pp. 783-797.
[2]Beaver,G.S. and T.A.Wilson,1970,”Vortex growth in jets,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics,Vol.44,pp.97-112.
[3]Sallam,A.M.,1982.An investigation of the effect of Reynolds shear stress on red blood cell hemolysis. PhD thesis.
[4]Lu PC,Lai HC,LIU JS,2000,”Reynolds shear stress in pulsatile jet,” Biomedical Engineering,Vol.12, pp.223-229.
[5]Yule,A.J.,1978”Large-scale structure in the mixing layer of a round jet,”Journal of Fluid Mechanics,Vol.89,pp.413-432.
[6]Hellums, J. D., and Brown, C. H., 1977, "Blood cell damage by mechanical forces," Cardiovascular Flow Dynamics and Measurements, N. H. C. Hwang, and N. A. Normann, eds., University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 799-823.
[7]Blackshear,P.L.,1972,Hemolysis at prosthetic,Chemistry of Biosurface,Vol.2(Ed. Hair M.L.),Marce/Dekker,New York,pp.523-561.
[8]Mohandas,N., R. M.Hochmuth and E.E.Spaeth,1974,”Adhesion of red cell to foreign surfaces in the presence of flow,”Journal Biomedical Mater Research,Vol.8,pp.119-136.
[9]Forstrom, R. J., 1969, "A new measure of erythrocyte membrane strength: the jet fragility test," PhD thesis, University of Minnesota.
[10]Sutera, S. P., and Mehrjardi, M. H., 1975, "Deformation and fragmentation of human red blood cells in turbulent shear flow," Biophys. J., 15(1), pp. 1-10.
[11]Smith,R.,E. Blick,J. Coalson and P.stein,1972,”Thrombus production by turbulence,”Journal of Applied Physiology,Vol.32,pp.261-264.
[12]Stain,P.D. and M.N.Sabbah,1974,”Measured turbulence and its effect on thrombus formation,”Circulation Research,Vol.35,pp.608-614.
[13]Grigioni, M., Daniele, C., D'Avenio, G., and Barbaro, V., 1999, "A discussion on the threshold limit for hemolysis related to Reynolds shear stress," J. Biomech.,Vol.32, pp. 1107-1112.
[14]Schima, H., Muller, M. R., Tsangaris, S., Gheiseder, G., Schlusche, C., Losert, U.,Thoma, H.,and Wolner, E.,1993,”Mechanical blood traumatization by tubing and throttles in in vitro pump tests:experimental results and implications for hemolysis theory,”Artificial Organs,Vol.17,pp.164-170.
[15]Kawase,Y. and M.Moo-Young, 1990,”Mathematical models for design of bioreactors:applications of Kolmogoroff’s theory of isotropic turbulence,” The Chemical Engineering Journal,Vol.43,pp.1319-1341.
[16] Baldwin, J. T., Deutsch, S., Petrie, H. L., and Tarbell, J. M., 1993, “Determination of principal Reynolds stresses in pulsatile flows after elliptical filtering of discrete velocity measurements,”Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol.115:pp.396-403.
[17]Tennekes, H. and J.L. Lumley., 1972,A first course in turbulence, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[18]Jone, S. A., 1995, “A Relationship Between Reynolds Stresses and Viscous Dissipation:Implications to Red Cell Damage, ”Annals of Biomedical Engineering,Vol.23,pp.21-28.
[19]Quinlan, N. J. and Dooley, P. N., 2007, ”Model of flow-Induced Loading on Blood Cells in Laminar and Turbulent Flow,with Application to Cardiovascular Device Flow,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering,Vol.35,pp.1347-1356.
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