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系統識別號 U0002-0207200914095500
中文論文名稱 哥倫比亞和平進程之研究:游擊隊活動對哥倫比亞國家與區域安全之影響及政府政策(1998-2008)
英文論文名稱 The Colombian Peace Process: the influence of guerilla movement on national and regional security and government policy (1998-2008)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Latin American Studies
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 許偉君
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Jiun Shu
學號 695310036
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-06-17
論文頁數 113頁
口試委員 指導教授-王秀琦
委員-陳小雀
委員-向駿
中文關鍵字 哥倫比亞革命武裝力量  游擊隊  準軍事團體  毒梟  溢出效應  國家安全  安地斯區域安全  和平進程  民主安全政策 
英文關鍵字 FARC  Guerilla  Paramilitary  Drug lord  Spillover effect  National security  AndeanRegional Security  peace process  Democratic Security Policy 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 冷戰過後,國家安全議題概念自傳統的國家軍事安全以及左右意識形態對峙,轉化成為國家之間互助合作,安全概念擴大至國際、區域以至全球安全。全球化發展之下,安全的內涵也從以往的軍事安全即為國家安全擴張成為包含了政治、經濟、社會、環境、科技、外交、文化的綜合性概念。因此可以得知,一國的安全危機往往牽動區域、國際的關注,單一國家安全概念已不再適用於全球化世界,一國的安全議題也不再限於該國領土之內,而進一步成為區域上、國際間的安全危機。

本研究以哥倫比亞游擊隊活動為背景,以綜合性安全之理論架構,探討在游擊隊活動之下所衍生出之毒品問題與準軍事團體,對哥國國家安全所帶來之影響,以及衝突溢出效應在區域層面所帶來之衝擊。
英文摘要 In Post-Cold war era, the national security issue has transformed from the traditional national military security and confrontation between two ideologies to the cooperation between countries, the security concept has been expanded to the international、regional and global security. Security connotation has been expanded from national military security to the comprehensive concept which includes politic, economy, society, environment,technology, diplomacy and culture. For this reason, a country's security crisis is often a regional and international concern, traditional national security concept is no longer suitable for a globalized world, one country's security issue is not limited within its territory, but further becomes a regional and international security crisis.

This study use Colombia's guerilla movement as background, with the analytical structure of comprehensive security to research the national and regional impact of spillover effect derived from Colombia’s guerilla movement.
論文目次 哥倫比亞和平進程之研究:游擊隊活動對哥倫比亞國家與區域安全之影響及政府政策(1998-2008)
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法與架構 3
第三節 研究範圍與限制 4

第二章 國家安全理論 5
第一節 國家安全基本概念 5
第二節 傳統與非傳統國家安全 10
第三節 國家安全與哥倫比亞 17

第三章 哥國游擊隊活動與各方衝突勢力 23
第一節 政黨暴力源起 23
第二節 國家陣線時期與哥國游擊隊組織 32
第三節 毒品問題與準軍事團體 41

第四章 武裝衝突對哥倫比亞國家及區域安全之影響 51
第一節 武裝衝突對哥國國家安全之影響 51
第二節 武裝衝突對安地斯區域安全之影響 60
第三節 國際社會對衝突之反應 69

第五章 哥倫比亞政府之安全政策(1998-2008) 81
第一節 巴斯特拉納執政前政府因應政策 81
第二節 巴斯特拉那政府政策(1998-2002) 90
第三節 烏力貝政府政策(2002-2008) 99

第六章 結論 108
參考文獻 參考資料
中文部分:
中文書籍:
倪建中.《國家安全:中國的安全空間與二十一世紀的國略選擇.》北京: 中國國際廣播出版社, 1997.

彭懷恩.《政治學:比較的觀點.》台北: 風雲出版, 民國89.

徐寶華.《哥倫比亞.》 北京: 社會科學文獻出版社, 2004.

摩根索(Hans J Morgenthau)著. 《國際政治學(Politics among Nations)》 Translated by 張自學. 台北: 幼獅文化事業公司, 民國65年.

盧梭(Jean Jacques Rousseau). 《社約論(Du Contrat Socail)》[Du Contrat Socail] . Translated by 徐百齊. 台北: 台灣商務印書館, 民國57年7月.

翁明賢.《全球化時代的國家安全.》 台北: 創世文化, 2001.

趙明義.《當代國家安全法制探討.》 台北: 黎明出版社, 2005.

陳福成.《國家安全與戰略關係.》台北: 時英, 2000.

中文期刊:

白鳳森,<哥倫比亞計畫是怎麼回事?>,《拉丁美洲研究》,第2期,2001年,頁46。

吳家慶,<後冷戰時期國家安全觀的新變化及其對策>,《湖南師範大學社會科學學報》,第一期,2000年,頁38。

張學明,<冷戰後國家安全觀的三大變化>,《南京政治學院學報》,第3期,2000年,頁99。

張江山,<試論國家安全的基本要素>, 《鐵道警官高等專科學校學報》,第三期,2001年,頁13。

蔡育岱 、譚偉恩,<雙胞胎或連體嬰:論安全研究與和平研究之關聯性>,《國際關係學院學報》,第25期2008年,頁22。

劉傳秀, <國家安全的認知與界定>,《海軍學術月刊》,第3期,2000年,頁5。

劉躍進,<試析危害國家安全的因素>,《山西師大學報》,第31卷,第4期 ,2004年,頁39。

———,<系統安全觀及其三層次>,《國際關係學院學報》,第2期, 2001年,頁3。

謝雪屏,<國家安全及若干相關概念的學術整理>,《福建師範大學學報》,2007年,頁2。

學位論文:

林柏宇,「哥倫比亞和平進程之研究(1982-2002):政府與游擊隊團體間互動關係之分析」,碩士論文,淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所,民國91年6月。

林美杏. 「後冷戰時期游擊隊活動對哥倫比亞國家安全之影響.」 碩士論文,淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所, 民國91年6月.。

謝淑華,「從游擊隊活動看哥倫比亞政治暴力文化」,碩士論文,淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所,民國87年6月.

外文資料

書籍:

Alcántara Saez, Manuel and Juan Manuel Ibeas Miguel. Colombia Ante Los Retos Del Siglo XXI: Desarrollo, Democracia y Paz. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 2001.

Alto Comisionado para la Paz. Proceso De Paz Con Autodefensas: Informe Ejecutivo. Bogotá: Presidencia de la Republica de Colombia, 2006.

Angel Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and It’s Implications for Regional Stability. Santa Monica, California: Rand, 2001.

Brown, Harold. Thinking about National Security: Defense and Foreign Policy in a Dangerous World. University of Michigan: Westview Press, 1983.

Bushnell, David. The Making of Modern Colombia: A Nation in Spite of itself. California: University of California Press, 1993.

Buzan, Barry. People, State, and Fear: The National Security Problem in International Relations. University of Michigan: University of North Carolina Press, 1983.

Calvo Ocampo, Fabiola, Ocampo Calvo O, Arturo Azeula, and Jaime Pastor. EPL, Una Historia Armada. Madrid: Fabiola
Calvo Ocampo y Ediciones VOSA S.L., 1996.

Camacho Guizado, Álvaro and Andrés López Restrepo. From Smugglers to Traquetos to Drug Lords. University of Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 2007.

Charles W, Bergquist , Ricardo Peñaranda, and Gonzalo Sánchez G. Violence in Colombia, 1990-2000: Waging War and Negotiating Peace. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources INC., 2001.

Charles P. Preston. Drugs and Conflict in Colombia: A Policy Framework Analysis of Plan ColombiaFaculty of Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 2004.

Chernick, Marc. Negotiating Peace and Multiple Forms of Violence: The Protracted Search for a Settlement to the Armed Conflict in Colombia. Washington: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1999.

Cynthia J. Arnson. Comparative Peace Process in Latin America, edited by Cynthia J. Arnson. Washington: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1999.

Crandall, Russell. Driven by Drugs: U.S. Policy Toward ColombiaLynne Rienner Publishers, 2002.

Cubides C, Fernando. “From Private to Public Violence: The Paramilitaries ”. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources INC, 2001.

European Commission. Country Strategic Paper 2007-2013, European Commission, 2007.

Gabriel Tokatlian, Juan. Colombia : War, Insecurity, and Foreign Intervention, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Harvey F. Kline. Chronicle of a Failure Foretold: The Peace Process of Colombian President Andrés Pastrana. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2007.

———. State Building and Conflict Resolution in Colombia 1986-1994. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999.

———. Colombia: Democracy Under Assault. University of Michigan: WestviewPress, 1995.

James F, Rochlin. Vanguard Revolutionaries in Latin America: Peru, Colombia, Mexico. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003.

Judith A. Gentleman. The Regional Security Crisis in the Andes: Patterns of State Response. Florida: The Strategic Studies Institute, 2001.

Jorge P. Osterling. Democracy in Colombia: Clientist Politics and Guerrilla Warfare. New Brunswick: Transaction publishers, 1989.

Kim Cragin, Kim and Bruce Hoffman. Arms Trafficking and Colombia. Santa Monica, California: Rand, 2003.

Luis E. Nagle. Plan Colombia: Reality of Colombian Crisis and Implications for Hemispheric Security. Florida: Strategic Studies Institute, 2002.

Lopez Gutiérrez, William. Las Políticas De Paz y Los Procesos De Negociación En Colombia: Breve Balance y Perspectivas. Vol. 19. Toluca, México: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México Faculdad de Sciencias Políticas y Administración Pública, 1999.

Loveman, Brian. Addicted to Failure: U.S. Security Policy in Latin America and the Andean RegionRoman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006.

Mario A. Murillo. Colombia and the United States: War, Unrest and Destabilization. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004.

Marcella, Gabriel. War without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis in 2008. Florida: Strategic Studies Institute, 2008.

———. Plan Colombia: The Strategic and Operational Imperatives. Florida: Strategic Studies Institute, 2001.
Max G. Manwaring. Wendy Fontela, Mary Mary Grizzard, and Dennis Rempe. Building Regional Security Cooperation in the Western Hemisphere: Issues and Recommendations. Florida: University of Miami North-South Center, 2003.

Medina, Medófilo. El Siglo XX Colombiano: Las Alternativas De La Paz y De La Guerra. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 2001.

Merheb, Nada. The State of World’s Refugees 2006: Human Displacement in the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, 2006.

Moser, Caroline. Violence in Colombia: Building Sustainable Peace and Social Capital, World Bank Country Study, 2000.
Palacios, Marco. between Legitimacy and Violence: A History of Colombia, 1875-2002 . Translated by translated by Richard Stroller. illustrated ed. Duke University: Duke University Press, 2006.

Rángel Suárez, Alfredo. Colombia En El Fin De Siglo. Bogotá: Tercer Mundo Editores, 1998.

Richani, Nazih. Systems of Violence: The Political Economy of War and Peace in Colomb. New York ed.State University of New York Press, 2002.

Richard L. Millet. Colombia’s Conflict: The Spillover Effect of a Wider War. University of Miami: Diane Publishing, 2002.

Rojas, Cristina and Judy Meltzer. Elusive Peace: International, National, and Local Dimensions of Conflict in Colombia, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Thomas A. Marks. Sustainability of Colombia Military/Strategic Support for “Democratic Security". Florida: Strategic Studies Institute, July 2005.

Valencia, León. Adíos a La Política, Bienvenido a Guerra: Secreto De Un Malogrado Proceso De Paz. Bogotá: Intermedio, 2002.

Watson, Cynthia. Guerrilla Groups in Colombia: Reconstituting the Political Process, Edited by Leonard Weinberg. England: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd, 1992.

Welna, Christopher and Gustavo Gallón. Peace Democracy and Human Rights in Colombia. University of Michigan: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007.

期刊文章:

Bibes, Patricia. "Transnational Organized Crime and Terrorism: Colombia, A Case Study." Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice (2001).

Cynthia J. Arnson. "The Peace Process in Colombia and U.S Policy." Conference on Democracy, Human Rights, and Peace in Colombia (March 26-27, 2001).

Enrique, Neira. "Un Caso Intrincado De Violencia: Colombia." Nueva Sociedad 105, (Enero-Febrero, 1990).

Evans, Gareth. "Cooperative Security and Intrastate Conflict." Foreign Policy no. 96 (1994).

Fields, Jeffery. "Small Arms Trafficking in the Americas." Foreign Policy Global Affairs Commentary (August, 2001).

G.T. Renner, Jr. "Colombia’s Internal Development." Economic Geography 3, no. 2 (1927): 259.

Gottwald, Martin. "Protecting Refugees in the Andean Region: The Fight Against Invisibility." The UN Refugees Agency Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit Working Paper no. 81 (March, 2003).

Harvey F. Kline. "Colombia: A State Failed Or One that Never Existed." SECOLAS Annual Meeting (April 19-21, 2007).
International Crisis Group. "Colombia’s Elusive Quest for

Peace." ICG Latin America Report no. 1 (March 2002).
———. "Uribe’s Re- Election: Can E.U. Help Colombia Develop a More Balanced Peace Strategy." ICG Latin America Report 17, (8 June, 2006).

———. "Uribe’s Re-Election: Can the E.U. Help Colombia Develop a More Balanced Peace Strategy." ICG Latin America Report no. 17 (2006).

———. "Colombia’s Borders: The Weak Link of Uribe’s Security Policy." ICG Latin America Report no. 15 (6 September, 2004).

———. "Demobilizing the Paramilitaries: An Achievable Goal?" ICG Latin America Report no. 8 (5 August, 2004).

———. "Colombia and its Neighbours: The Tentacles of Instability." ICG Latin America Report 3, (8 April, 2003).

———. "Colombia: Negotiating with Paramilitaries." ICG Latin America Report no. 5 (16 September, 2003).

———. "Colombia: President Uribe’s Democratic Security Policy." ICG Latin America Report no. 6 (13 November, 2003).

Kott, Adam. "FARC: A Perilous Future ; A Grim Recent Past." Council on Hemispheric Affairs (April 28, 2009).

María Sanjuán, Ana. Venezuela and the Colombian Conflict :Tensions, Problems and UncertaintiesPalgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Mason, Ann and Arlene Tickner. A Transregional Security Cartography of the Andes the University of Pittsburgh Press, 2006.

Michael Bagley, Bruce. Drug Trafficking, Political Violence, and U.S. Policy in Colombia Under Clinton Administration, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Nina M. Serafino. "Colombia: The Uribe Administration and Congressional Concerns." CRS Report for Congress (June 14, 2002).

Pardo, Rodrigo, Christopher Welna, and George A. Lopez. "Towards a Peace Process in Colombia: The Role of Europe and the United Nations." Europe and Colombia: Diplomacy and Civil Society from Peace Research Center (2004).

Ramirez, Socorro. " Colombia: Tensiones y Perspectivas ." Nueva Sociedad (Julio/ Agosto, 2004).

Shills L, David. " International Encyclopedia of the Social Science." International Encyclopedia of the Social Science 11, (1968).

Tate, Winifred. ""Paramilitaries in Colombia"." The Brown Journal of World Affairs volume VIII, (spring 2001): 164.

The Latin America Working Group Education Fund. "The Wrong Road: Colombia’s National Security Policy." , The Latin America Working Group Education Fund. (July 2003).

政府官方文件:

Ministerio de Defensa de Colombia. Política De Consolidación De Seguridad Democrática. Bogotá: Ministerio de Defensa Nacional de Colombia, 2007.

Ministerio de Defensa Nacional. Política De Defensa y Seguridad Democrática. Bogotá: Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 2003.

United Nations Office on Drug and Crime. Coca Cultivation in the Andean Region 2007: A Survey of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, United Nations Office on Drug and Crime, 2008.

網路資料

中文新聞:

BBC中文網. "美將恢復哥倫比亞緝毒飛行." BBC中文網. http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_3120000/newsid_3127500/3127589.stm (accessed 4/25, 2009).

———. "哥倫比亞向叛軍提出交換人質." BBC中文網. http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_3570000/newsid_3578600/3578620.stm (accessed 5/2, 2009).

———. “哥倫比亞為改革舉行公投”. http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_3210000/newsid_3214600/3214681.stm ed. Vol. 2009BBC中文網, 10/25/2003.

新浪全球新聞. "哥倫比亞與巴西簽屬協議共同監視亞馬遜邊界." 新浪網. http://news.sina.com/105-000-102-105/2009-03-12/0951566316.html (accessed 3/16, 2009).

鄭寺音. "哥倫比亞越境剿叛軍,引起三國緊張." 自由電子報. http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2008/new/mar/4/today-int1.htm (accessed 5/5, 2009).

外文新聞:

BBC news. "World: Europe BP Denies Selling Arms to Colombia." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/195665.stm (accessed 2/25, 2009).

BBC News. "Profile: Ingrid Betancur." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7266587.stm (accessed 5/7, 2009).

———. "Agreement Reached in Andean Row." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7302025.stm (accessed 5/6, 2009).

Mcdermott, Jeremy. "Colombia Probes Links with FARC." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7416043.stm (accessed 5/9/, 2009).

McDermott, Jeremy. "Second Senior FARC Rebel Killed." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/7284222.stm (accessed 5/6, 2009).

Mcdermott, Jeremy. "Analysis: Colombia’s Conflict Spills Over." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1913475.stm (accessed 2/17, 2009).

———. "Profile:” Colombia’s Armed Groups”." http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4528631.stm (accessed 4/28, 2009).

McDermott, Jeremy. "Leader’s Death Harsh Blow to FARC." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/7419578.stm (accessed 5/6, 2009).

———. "“Colombia’s most Power Rebel”." http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1746777.stm (accessed 5/12/, 2009).

El Tiempo. "Especialistas Hablan Sobre El Cómo De La Ejecución De Diálogo Propuesto Por Pastrana a Las Farc: Los Desafíos De La Agenda Para La Paz’."
http://www.eltiempo.com/ (accessed 4/13, 2009).
———. "El Siquiente Es El Texto Del Documento Suscrito

Hoy Por El Gobierno Nacional y Las Farc –EP." http://www.eltiempo.com/ (accessed 4/14, 2009).
Mcgirk, Tim. "King of the Jungle." Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,998583-2,00.html (accessed 1/30, 2009).
Painter, James. "Colombia War Colours Regional Ties." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4675485.stm (accessed 2/20, 2009).

Reuters. "Colombian Leader Meets the Army before Rebel Deadline." Reuters. http://www.reuters.com (accessed 4/15, 2009).

Schweimler, Daniel. "Pride Fuels Latin America Crisis." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/7281955.stm (accessed 5/6, 2009).

學術性文章:

Center for International Policy. <Peace Initiatives in Colombia>http://www.ciponline.org/colombia/farc.htm (accessed 4/11, 2009).

———. < Text of Accord for a Timetable for the Future of the Peace Process>http://www.ciponline.org/colombia/012004.htm (accessed 4/11, 2009).

Economist. < Cousin Mario: Parapolitics Touches the First Family> Economist. http://www.economist.com/world/americas/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11089566 (accessed 5/9/, 2009).

———. < The FARC Files: Just how Much Help has Hugo Chavez Given to FARC? >Economist. http://www.economist.com/world/americas/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11412645 (accessed 2/24, 2009).

Fundación Seguridad y Democracia. < Colombia y Ecuador: Una Frontera, Dos Visiones> FSD Publicaciones, 2006, http://www.seguridadydemocracia.org/default.asp.

Hanson, Stephanie. <Colombia’s Parapolitics> Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.cfr.org/publication/12955/colombias_parapolitics.html (accessed 5/9/, 2009).

Leech, Garry. <How the EU and Canada could Work for Peace in Colombia>http://www.colombiajournal.org/colombia249.htm (accessed 3/6, 2009).

Starmer, Elanor. <Bush Administration Seeks to U.S. Personnel in Colombia> Center for International Policy, America Program. http://americas.irc-online.org/am/949 (accessed 3/1, 2009).

Vargas Velásquez, Alejo. <El Plan Colombia: Los Efectos Sobre La Guerra y Paz> http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/colombia/doc/plan/vargas.html (accessed 5/9, 2009).

政府相關網站:

United Nations Office on Drug and Crime.(聯合國毒品與犯罪辦公室)http://www.unodc.org/

Ministerio de Defensa de Colombia(哥倫比亞國防部)
http://www.mindefensa.gov.co/

World Peace Index
 http://www.visionofhumanity.org/(世界和平指數官方網站)
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