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系統識別號 U0002-0207200815174400
中文論文名稱 歐盟移民政策對西班牙移民政策之影響(1986-2007)
英文論文名稱 The Influence of European Union’s Immigration Policy on Spanish Policy (1986-2007)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 黃愛嫃
研究生英文姓名 Ai-Chen Huang
學號 694030288
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-24
論文頁數 142頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡政文
共同指導教授-卓忠宏
委員-陳雅鴻
委員-熊建成
中文關鍵字 移民政策  歐洲移民  西班牙移民  阿姆斯特丹條約 
英文關鍵字 Immigration policy  European migrant  Spanish migrant  The treaty of Amsterdam 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 為了實踐共同市場的目標而簽訂的單一歐洲法,促使各會員國面對邊界障礙去除後的困境,乃因為外來移民所造成的影響不再是單一國家能獨自解決的問題。因此,早在西班牙預備加入歐體前,其他會員國均擔憂藉西班牙入境歐洲的移民會大增,即使當時的西班牙尚未面臨大量移民潮,為了配合歐體針對非歐盟移民的進入限制下,仍然於1985年制定移民法來管理境內的外來移民,並在歐盟著手規範一個共同移民政策的方針下,不斷立法並嚴格其政策以為因應。

本文研究係以西班牙加入歐體後,在邁向共同移民政策的架構下如何去調整該國的政策為主軸,並以政府間主義分析歐盟移民政策的發展。區域性的經濟整合在發展到一定程度後,會不可避免地引導會員國在某些政治議題上合作,即使這些合作牽涉到一國主權。因此,在何種情形之下,區域的經濟合作有可能發展到足以推進區域的政治合作程度,將是未來區域整合研究的重要課題。

目前歐盟共同移民政策仍在發展中,但在限制移民潮的趨勢下,西班牙配合其要求而採取嚴格的移民政策。然而,大量的非法移民對國家與社會的衝擊,促使西班牙政府必須實施合法化計畫來管控這些移民者。因此,現今西班牙跟歐盟其他移民接納國一樣均處於兩難的情況,欲在遏止外來移民潮與廉價勞工需求之間保持平衡是極為困難的。
英文摘要 Signing the Single European Act was in order to complete the internal market, and all member states of the European Union confronted the elimination of internal border checks. Therefore, the immigration flow became the problem that the single country could not solve alone. Moreover, some member states expressed concern about the accession of Spain to the Union because of its historical ties with Latin America and geographical proximity with the Maghreb. It was feared that there would be a massive influx of new immigrants from these areas. To alleviate tensions, Spain implemented a new policy in 1985 that restricted non-European Community citizen immigration. It was more an immigration law to meet the EC standards than a true necessity, however, as Spain at that time was still an emigration country.

This study focuses on the changes of Spanish immigration policy after Spain becomes the member of EC, and analyses the development of European Union’s immigration policy with intergovernmentalism. More the economic cooperation in a certain policy will generate cooperation effects that spill over into other policy, even that involves the country’s sovereignty. It is also the issue that the scholars of regional integration try to research in the future.

European Union’s common immigration policy is still on developing, but under the restrictive rules for non-EU citizens, Spain takes the strict immigration policy accordingly. Nevertheless, a large number of illegal immigrants cause the social insecurity, the Spanish government has to carry out some regularization programs to control the migration flow. Nowadays, Spain undergoes the dilemma same as other European country, it is difficult to implement the restrictive migration policy or to meet the demands of cheaper labor force.
論文目次 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究途徑與方法 3
第三節 資料來源 6
第四節 研究範圍 11

第一章 歐盟邁向共同移民政策之過程與內容 15
第一節 邁向共同體化之過程 15
一、演變過程 15
二、促成制定共同政策之因素 19
第二節 歐盟移民政策之發展 22
一、1975年至1985年純屬政府間合作時期 23
二、1986年至1992年歐體移民政策合作時期 23
三、1993年至1998年政府間合作制度化時期 26
四、1999年至2007年移民政策共同體化時期 27
第三節 歐盟移民政策之規範內容 30
一、共同體化之前 31
二、共同體化之後 33

第二章 西班牙移民狀況與問題 39
第一節 第二次大戰後西班牙移民狀況 39
一、西班牙移民之歷史背景 39
二、外來移民的來源地區與分佈 42
三、外來移民產生的效應與問題 48
第二節 第二次大戰後西班牙移民政策演進 50
一、中間民主聯盟時期(1977年至1982年) 50
二、社會主義勞工黨時期(1982年至1996年) 51
三、人民黨時期(1996年至2004年) 53
四、社會主義勞工黨時期(2004年至2007年) 55

第三章 西班牙移民政策之調整過程與內容 57
第一節 西班牙移民政策轉變過程 57
一、演進過程 58
二、影響政策轉變的因素 60
第二節 西班牙移民政策規範之對象 65
一、勞工移民 65
二、移民眷屬 67
三、庇護申請者 70
第三節 歐盟與西班牙移民政策之比較 71
一、勞工移民 71
二、移民眷屬 73
三、庇護申請者 75

第四章 西班牙移民政策之執行 79
第一節 國內層面 79
一、邊境管制 80
二、勞動市場管制 82
第二節 歐盟層面 85
第三節 國際層面 90
一、拉丁美洲地區 90
二、非洲地區 93
三、其他地區 96

第五章 西班牙移民政策之成效 99
第一節 影響政策成效之因素 99
一、移民入境之多變 99
二、勞動需求之屬性 100
三、雙邊協議之傾向 103
四、歐盟行動之壓力 104
第二節 政策成效 105
一、邊境管制漏洞 106
二、勞工定額制度失靈 107
三、非法移民之遣返 109
四、合法化計畫之實施 110

第六章 歐盟與西班牙移民政策之評估與展望 115
第一節 政策與理論評估 115
一、政策現狀與評估 115
二、理論評估 118
第二節 未來展望 121

結論 127

參考文獻 133

圖目次

圖0-1:論文研究架構圖 13
圖1-1:英國的主要外來移民來源地區 16
圖1-2:德國的主要外來移民來源地區 17
圖1-3:法國的主要外來移民來源地區 18
圖2-1:移民的資訊來源 43
圖2-2:1983年至1999年西班牙外來移民來自各地區的百分比 44
圖3-1:1995年至2007年西班牙外來移民的來源地比例 66
圖4-1:西班牙的移民來源地區與SIVE系統所偵測的範圍 82

表目次

表0-1:文獻分析彙整表 6
表2-1:1986年至2007年西班牙外來移民的數量與佔總人口百分比 41
表2-2:1995年至2007年西班牙外來移民的來源地與數量 45
表2-3:1986年至1996年外籍人口在歐洲各國總數及占總人口百分比 46
表3-1:新興移民接納國的移民管控階段:以西班牙、義大利為例 63
表3-2:傳統移民接納國的移民管控階段:以德國、法國為例 64
表3-3:歐盟一般家庭團聚之受益者 69
表3-4:1984年至2002年歐盟會員國庇護申請人數 76
表4-1:1995年至2007年西班牙外來移民的來源地區與百分比 85
表4-2:與西班牙簽訂雙邊協定的歐洲國家 90
表4-3:與西班牙簽訂招募勞工協定的國家 92
表4-4:與西班牙簽訂雙邊協定的非洲國家 94
表5-1:各國生育率比較 102
表5-2:2000年至2005年西班牙未具合法身份移民的數量與百分比 108
表5-3:2000年至2004年在摩洛哥攔截到的非法移民數量 110
表5-4:西班牙合法化計劃的實施演進 112
參考文獻 一、 中文資料
(一)專書:
Peter Stalker著,蔡繼光譯(2002),《國際遷徙與移民:解讀「離國出走」》(International Migration),台北:書林。

Samuel. P. Huntington著,黃裕美譯(1997),《文明衝突與世界秩序的重建》,台北:聯經。

Saskia Sassen著,黃克先譯(2006),《客人?外人?遷移在歐洲(1800~)》(Guests and Aliens),台北:巨流。

王泰銓編(2006),《歐洲聯盟條約與歐洲共同體條約譯文及重要參考文件》,台北:翰蘆。

方真真(2003),《西班牙史:首開殖民美洲的國家》,台北:三民。

卓忠宏(2005),《西班牙與歐洲聯盟》,台北:揚智。

邱晃泉、張炳煌合著(1993),《歐洲共同體解讀》,台北:學英。

(二)期刊:
李貴英(2000),「阿姆斯特丹條約與歐洲聯盟會員國政府間合作關係」,《美歐季刊》,第14卷第3期,頁333-370。

卓忠宏(2004),「歐盟地中海政策」,《問題與研究》,第43卷第4期,頁95-113。

卓忠宏(2007),「歐盟-地中海區域移民問題之探討」,《淡江大學歐盟資料中心通訊》,第14期,頁15-19。

邱稔壤(1992),「西班牙在歐洲與拉丁美洲之橋樑角色」,《問題與研究》,第31卷第4期,頁75-85。

張志洲(2007),「國際政治視角下的歐洲移民問題」,《國際政治》,第9卷3期,頁7-13。

盧倩儀(2006),「全球化與歐盟「非歐盟公民」概念之探討」,《政治科學論叢》,第28期,頁1-38。

盧倩儀(2000),「區域整合中之修約理論與阿姆斯特丹條約談判過程-移民相關規定之個案研究」,《美歐季刊》,第14卷第2期,頁171-204。

盧倩儀(1999a),「從歐盟移民政策決策過程談自由派政府間主義」,《問題與研究》,第38卷第3期,頁19-32。

盧倩儀(1999b),「從歐盟移民政策看區域經濟整合的政治意涵」,《美歐季刊》,第13卷第1期,頁1-29。

藍玉春(2001),「解析阿姆斯特丹條約」,《政治科學論叢》,第15期,頁15-44。

(三)博碩士論文:
許承業(2002),「歐洲移民與西班牙的移民政策」,台北:淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文。

傅以蒨(2003),「法國與歐洲共同移民政策」,台北:政治大學外交學系碩士論文。

二、 英文資料
(一)專書:
Actis, W., De Prada, M. Á. and Pereda, C. (1999), “Spain” in Angenendt, Steffen (ed.), Asylum and Migration Policies in the European Union, Berlin: Research Institute of the German Society for Foreign Affairs, pp. 291-309.

Bover, O. and Velilla, P. (2005), “Migrations in Spain: Historical Background and Current Trends,” in Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), European Migration: What Do We Know?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 389-414.

Butt Philip, Alan (1994), “European Union Immigration Policy: Phantom, Fantasy or Fact?” in Baldwin-Edwards, M. and Martin A. Schain (eds.), The politics of immigration in Western Europe, Essex, UK: Frank Cass, pp. 168-192.

Den Boer, Monica (2001), “The incorporation of Schengen into the TEU: a bridge too far?” in Monar, J. and Wessels, W. (eds.), The European Union After the Treaty of Amsterdam, London: Continuum, pp. 296-318.

Escribano, A. I. (1993), “The EC and Spanish immigration policy”, in Barbado, A. A. (ed.), Spain and EC Membership Evaluated, London: Pinter, pp. 293-301.

Favell, A. and Geddes, A. (2000), “Immigration and European Integration: New Opportunities for Transnational Political Mobilization?” in Koopmans, R. and Statham P. (eds.), Challenging Immigration and Ethnic Relations Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 407-428.

Fassmann, H. and Münz, R. (1994), “Patterns and Trends of International Migration in Western Europe”, in Fassmann, H. and Münz, R. (eds.), European Migration in the Late Twentieth Century:Historical Patterns, Actual Trends and Social Implications, Hants: Edward Elgar, pp. 3-34.

Geddes, Andrew (2000), Immigration and European integration: Towards fortresss Europe?, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Gillespie, Richard (2000), Spain and the Mediterranean: Developing a European Policy towards the South, London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

Huysmans, Jef (2006), The Politics of Insecurity: Fear, migration and asylum in the EU, London: Routledge, pp.63-69.

Kohler-Koch, Beate (1999), “The evolution and transformation of European Governance,” in Kohler-Koch, B. and Eising, R. (eds.), The Transformation of Governance in the European Union, London: Routldege, pp. 14-35.

Lahav, Gallya (2004), Immigration and Politics in the New Europe: Reinventing Borders, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Messina, A. M. (2007), The Logics And Politics of Post-WWII Migration to Western Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mitchell, M. and Russell, D. (1999), “The Governance of Migration: towards a European Immigration Regime” in Carr, F. and Massey A. (eds.), Public Policy in the New Europe, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 122-145.

Monar, Jörg (2001a), “Schengen, Closer Cooperation and the Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion” in Marinho, C. (ed.), Asylum, Immigration and Schengen Post-Amsterdam: A First Assessment, Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration, pp. 75-89.

Monar, Jörg (2001b), “Justice and home affairs after Amsterdam: the treaty reforms and the challenge of their implementation?” in Monar, J. and Wessels, W. (eds.), The European Union After the Treaty of Amsterdam, London: Continuum, pp. 267-295.

Moraes, Claude (2003), “The Politics of European Union Migration Policy” in Sarah Sepncer (ed.), The Politicics of Migration: managing opportunity conflict and change, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 116-133.

Moren-Alegret, Ricard (2001), “Tuning the Channels: Local Government Policies and Immigrants’ Participation in Barcelona” in Rogers, Alisdair and Tillie, Jean (eds.), Multicultural Policies and Modes of Citizenship in European Cities, Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 61-84.

Stalker, Peter (1994), The work of strangers: A survey of internationall labour migration, Geneva: International Labour Office.

Watson, Graham (2001), “EU Asylum and Immigration Policies: The Point of View of the European Parliament” in Marinho, C. (ed.), Asylum, Immigration and Schengen Post-Amsterdam: A First Assessment, Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration, pp. 47-53.

Zimmermann, K. F. (2005), “Introduction: What We Know About European Migration”, in Zimmermann, K. F. (ed.), European Migration: What Do We Know?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-14.

(二)期刊:
Baldwin-Edwards, Martin (1997), “The Emerging European Immigration Regime: Some Reflections on Implications for Southern Europe”, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 497-519.

Baldwin-Edwards, Martin (2002), “Semi-Reluctant Hosts: Southern Europe's Ambivalent Response to Immigration”, The Brown Journal of World Affairs, vol. 8, issue 2, pp. 211-229.

Baldwin-Edwards, Martin (2006), “Between a Rock & a Hard Place: North Africa as a region of emigration, immigration and transit migration”, Review of African Political Economy, vol. 33, issue 108, pp. 1-20.

Bazo, M. T. G. (1998), “The Role of Spain as a Gateway to the Schengen Area: Changes in the Sylum Law and their Implications for Human Rights”, International Journal of Refugee Law, vol. 10, issue 1-2, pp. 214-229.

Bodega, I., Cebrian, J.A., Franchini, T., Lora-tamayo, G. and Martin-lou, A. (1995), “Recent Migrations from Morocco to Spain”, International Migration Review, vol. 29, no. 3, pp.800-819.

Büchel, F. and J. R. Frick (2005), “Immigrants’ economic performance across Europe-does immigration policy matter?”, Population Research and Policy Review, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 175-212.

Calavita, Kitty (1998), “Immigration, Law and Marginalization in a Global Economy: Notes from Spain”, Law and Society Review, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 529-566.

Corkill, David (2001), “Economic migrants and the labour market in Spain and Portugal”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 828-844.

De Valderrama, C.B.F. (1993), “The New Hosts: The Case of Spain”, International Migration Review, vol. 27, no. 1, pp.169-181.

Encarnación, Omar G. (2004), “The Politics of Immigration: Why Spain Is Different”, Mediterranean Quarterly: Fall 2004, vol. 15, issue 4, pp.167-185.

Holdsworth, Clare (1998), “Leaving Home in Spain: A Regional Analysis”, International Journal of Population Geography, vol. 4, issue 4, pp. 341-360.

Hollifield, J. F. (1992), “Migration and International Relations: Cooperation and Control in the European Community”, International Migration Review, vol. 26, no. 2, pp.568-595.
Huntoon, Laura (1998), “Immigration to Spain: Implications for a Unified European Union Immigration Policy”, International Migration Review, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 423-448.

Malgesini, G. and Hiltermann, J. (1993), “Spain and the EC: Sluicegate for Europe’s Migrant Labor Market”, Middle East Report, no. 181, pp. 25-29.

Marrero Rocha, I. (2005), “The Implications of Spanish-Moroccan Governmental Relations for Moroccan Immigrants in Spain: Spanish-Moroccan Governmental Relations and Moroccan Immigrants”, European Journal of Migration and Law, vol. 7, issue 4, pp. 413-434.

Nieto, Gladys (2003), “The Chinese in Spain”, International Migration, vol. 41, issue 3, pp. 215-237.

Peers, Steve (2002), “Key Legislative Developments on Migration in the European Union,” European Journal of Migration and Law, vol. 4, issue 3, pp.339-367.

Pinyol, Gemma (2007), “Europe’s Southern Border: Spain and the Management of Immigration,” Foreign Policy in Dialogue, vol. 8, issue 22, pp.51-58.

Walsh, James I. (2006), “Intelligence-Sharing in the European Union: Institutions Are Not Enough”, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 625-643.

White, Gregory (2001), “Risking the Strait: Moroccan Labor Migration to Spain”, Middle East Report, no. 218, pp. 26-29.

Zimmermann, K. F. (1995), “Tackling the European Migration Problem”, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 45-62.

三、 西班牙文資料
(一)專書:
Martín, J. y De Nanclares, P. (2002), La Inmigración y el Asilo en la Unión Europea: Hacia un nuevo espacio de libertad, seguridad y justicia, Madrid: Colex.

Escribano, Antonio Izquierdo (1992), La inmigración en España: 1980-1990, España: Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social.

(二)期刊:
Carazo, Teresa (2006), “La humanidad en movimiento, un reto del siglo XXI”, Política Exterior, vol. 20, no. 114, pp. 185-193.

Guindo, C. A. (2004), “La importancia de conocer la inmigración”, Economía Exterior, no. 28, pp.9-14.

Melguizo, Á. y Sebastián, M. (2004), “Inmigración y economía: un enfoque global”, Economía Exterior, no. 28, pp.27-34.

Pino, Domingo (2005), “La inmigración y las relaciones hispano-marroquíes”, Política Exterior, vol. 19, no. 108, pp.55-67.

Ugarte, J. L. (2004), “España, país de inmigración. Preguntas con pocas respuestas”, Economía Exterior, no. 28, pp.15-26.

四、 官方資料及政府出版品
Presidency Conclusions, Vienna European Council, 11-12 December 1998.

Presidency Conclusions, Tampere European Council, 15-16 October 1999.

Presidency Conclusions, Laeken European Council, 14-15 December 2001.

Presidency Conclusions, Seville European Council, 21-22 June 2002.

Presidency Conclusions, Brussels European Council, 15-16 December 2005.

SOPEMI (1999), Trends in International Migration, Paris: OECD.

五、 網路資料
熊建成,「全球化下西班牙新華人族群之研究」,05/2004, http://192.38.121.218/issco5/documents/HungHuiJuanpaper.doc.

潘彥君,「歐盟推藍卡計畫」,《Taiwan News財經.文化周刊》,第309期,02nd/10/2007,http://news.epochtimes.com.tw/7/10/2/66967.htm。

公視晚間新聞(2008),「羈押遣返非法移民新法表決過關」,19th/06/2008,http://www.pts.org.tw/php/news/pts_news/detail.php?NEENO=88424。

中國時報(2008),「歐盟擬遣送非法移民拉美翻臉」,21st/06/2008,http://www.coolloud.org.tw/node/22610。

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