淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-0109201112044800
中文論文名稱 利用小球藻處理高氮廢水 探討最佳操作參數及生長特性之研究
英文論文名稱 A study on the optimum operation parameters and growth characteristics of Chlorella sp. in the high concentrations nitrogen wastewater treatment
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 陳怡如
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Ru Chen
學號 698480133
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-07-07
論文頁數 74頁
口試委員 指導教授-高思懷
委員-孫常榮
委員-詹益臨
中文關鍵字 小球藻  高氮廢水  硝酸鹽氮的去除率  比生長速率 
英文關鍵字 Chlorella sp.  high concentrations nitrogen wastewater  removal efficiency  specific growth rate 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 微藻的污水處理系統提供了適合的環境及足夠的營養源,且微藻具有繁殖迅速適應能力強之生長特性,可以有效的在短時間將廢污水中的高碳高氮去除。微藻去除了具有高效率去除廢水中營養源的優點外;另一方面,可做為因能源危機而需新的乾淨替代能源之能源產物。
為了找出小球藻(Chlorella sp.)處理廢水的最佳操作參數,本研究以處理高氮廢水中的硝酸鹽氮為主,觀察Chlorella sp.的生長特性為輔,分別處理高氮廢水原水及添加不同濃度的磷及碳,觀察其對Chlorella sp.去除營養鹽及生長特性的影響。
實驗結果顯示,碳及磷的濃度皆會對Chlorella sp.去除營養鹽的效率及生長情形有影響,Chlorella sp.去除高氮廢水原水中的硝酸鹽氮效率有限,在0-96小時,硝酸鹽氮從38 mg/L降至28 mg/L,約只有27 %的去除率;在添加不同碳源的實驗中,發現以葡萄糖為碳源,在0-72小時,不論是去除硝酸鹽氮的效率或是生長,皆為最佳的碳源;在不同磷濃度的實驗中,發現足夠的磷濃度能在20小時內去除80 %以上的硝酸鹽氮,在16-20小時,比生長速率最高能達到1.93 day-1;碳濃度對於小球藻去除營養鹽及生長特性的影響最大,在沒有碳或碳濃度不足的環境下,會使得硝酸鹽氮的去除率不佳。
英文摘要 The high concentration nitrogen wastewater supplies microalgae with enough nutrient and suitable environment when using the microalgae treated the wastewater. The microalgae is provided with the characteristics of reproduce rapidly and quick adaptation, which have high efficiency to treat high carbon and high nitrogen concentration of wastewater. The microalgae would be a new clean energy source in this energy crisis days.
In order to find the optimum parameters of Chlorella sp. to treated wastewater, the aim of this study is to treat the high concentration of nitrate-based wastewater and observe the growth characteristics of Chlorella sp. The results indicated that the efficiency of the treatment is limited. The concentration of the nitrate nitrogen was decreased form 38 mg/L to 28 mg/L during treated time of 72 h. The removal efficiency only has 27%. But that would get the best removal efficiency and growth characteristics when the glucose was added as the carbon source. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of the nitrate nitrogen will up to 80% when the reaction obtained enough phosphorous and the reaction time was within 20 h. At this condition, the study could gain the highest specific growth rate 1.93 day-1 during 16-20 hours. Therefore, the carbon source is the main impact factor for treating the high concentration nitrate-based wastewater.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 2
1-3 研究內容 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2-1 藻類特性 5
2-2 光合作用 5
2-3 微藻─小球藻(Chlorella sp.) 8
2-4 小球藻(Chlorella sp.)的生殖方式 10
2-5 微藻的培養方式 12
2-6 影響微藻的生長因子 16
2-6-1 溫度的影響 16
2-6-2 光照強度和週期的影響 17
2-6-3 pH值的影響 18
2-6-4 碳源的影響 19
2-6-5 氮源的影響 20
2-6-6 磷源的影響 22
2-7 Chlorella sp.處理不同廢水中的氮 22
2-8 利用小球藻淨化水質 23
第三章 實驗材料與方法 24
3-1 實驗材料 24
3-1-1 藻種來源 24
3-1-2 培養基與實廠之RO濃縮廢水 24
3-2 前期實驗 26
3-3 實驗方法與流程 26
3-3-1 實驗方法 26
3-3-2 實驗流程 27
3-4 實驗步驟 28
3-4-1 Chlorella sp.的前期培養 28
3-4-2 處理RO濃縮廢液之原水 28
3-4-3 Chlorella sp.於不同碳源之實驗 29
3-4-4 Chlorella sp.於不同磷濃度之實驗 30
3-4-5 Chlorella sp.於不同碳氮比之實驗 31
3-5 分析方法 33
3-5-1 藻體生長濃度(OD660值)之測定 33
3-5-2 藻體生物質量(Biomass)之測定 33
3-5-3 藻體油脂含量測定 33
3-5-4 pH值之測定 34
3-5-5 硝酸鹽氮濃度之測定 34
3-5-6 正磷酸鹽濃度之測定 34
3-5-7 總有機碳濃度之測定 34
3-5-8 光照強度之測定 35
3-5-9 營養鹽去除率之計算 35
3-5-10 藻體比生長速率之計算 35
3-6 實驗設備 36
第四章 結果與討論 39
4-1 Chlorella sp.對高氮廢水之處理結果 39
4-2 Chlorella sp.在不同碳源下處理高氮廢水之影響 43
4-3 Chlorella sp.在不同磷濃度下對高氮廢水處理之影響 48
4-3-1 不同磷濃度對碳氮去除效率之影響 48
4-3-2 不同磷濃度對Chlorella sp.之生長趨勢 53
4-4 Chlorella sp.在不同碳濃度下對高氮廢水處理之影響 56
4-4-1 不同碳濃度對碳氮去除效率之影響 56
4-4-2 不同碳濃度對Chlorella sp.之生長趨勢 63
4-4-3 不同碳濃度對油脂變化之影響 65
4-4-4 初始碳濃度與碳氮比例消耗之相關性 66
第五章 結論與建議 68
5-1 結論 68
5-2 建議 70
第六章 參考文獻 71

表目錄
Table2- 1光合作用反應簡表 8
Table3- 1培養基成分表 25
Table3- 2 RO濃縮液水質 25
Table3- 3實驗儀器設備表 36
Table4- 1不同磷濃度(氮磷比)之硝酸鹽氮的去除率 52
Table4- 2不同磷濃度(氮磷比)之總有機碳的去除率 52
Table4- 3不同磷濃度(氮磷比)之Chlorella sp.的比生長速率. 55
Table4- 4 Chlorella sp.培養於不同碳濃度之藻體生物質量(Biomass)及油脂(Lipid)的增加量 65
Table4- 5 不同階段碳與氮量消耗的比例 67

圖目錄
Fig.2- 1光合作用的光反應流程 7
Fig.2- 2光合作用的暗反應流程。 7
Fig.2- 3實驗小球藻(400X)(左)小球藻細胞剖析(Palmer,1962)(右) 10
Fig.2- 4 The growth of Chlorella sp. 11
Fig.3 - 1實驗流程圖……………………………………………………27
Fig.3 - 2高壓滅菌釜(左),無菌操作台(右) 37
Fig.3 - 3培養箱 37
Fig.3 - 4燈管(左),分光光度計(右) 37
Fig.3 - 5高速微量離心機(左),烘箱(右) 38
Fig.3 - 6 總有機碳分析儀(左),pH計(右) 38
Fig.3 - 7 陰離子層析儀 38
Fig.4- 1Chlorella sp.培養於高氮廢水硝酸鹽氮及氨氮之變化情形….41
Fig.4- 2 Chlorella sp. 培養於高氮廢水中總有機碳之消耗變化趨勢 41
Fig.4- 3 Chlorella sp. 培養於高氮廢水中之藻體生長濃度變化 42
Fig.4- 4 Chlorella sp. 培養於高氮廢水中藻體生物質量之生長趨勢 42
Fig.4- 5 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳源之硝酸鹽氮的變化情形 45
Fig.4- 6 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳源之硝酸鹽氮的去除率 45
Fig.4- 7 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳源之總有機的變化情形 46
Fig.4- 8 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳源之總有機碳的去除率 46
Fig.4- 9 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳源之藻體濃度(OD660)生長趨勢 47
Fig.4- 10 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳源之藻體生物質量之生長趨勢 47
Fig.4- 11 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同磷濃度之硝酸鹽氮的變化情形 50
Fig.4- 12 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同磷濃度之硝酸鹽氮的去除率 50
Fig.4- 13 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同磷濃度之總有機碳的變化情形 51
Fig.4- 14 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同磷濃度之總有機碳的去除率 51
Fig.4- 15 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同磷濃度之藻體濃度生長趨勢 54
Fig.4- 16 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同磷濃度之藻體生物質量生長趨勢 54
Fig.4- 17 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳濃度之硝酸鹽氮的變化情形 58
Fig.4- 18 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳濃度之硝酸鹽氮的去除率 58
Fig.4- 19 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳濃度之總有機碳的變化情形 59
Fig.4- 20 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳濃度之總有機碳的去除率 59
Fig.4- 21硝酸鹽氮與總有機碳之消耗關係圖(C/N=0) 60
Fig.4- 22硝酸鹽氮與總有機碳之消耗關係圖(C/N=6) 60
Fig.4- 23硝酸鹽氮與總有機碳之消耗關係圖(C/N=8) 61
Fig.4- 24硝酸鹽氮與總有機碳之消耗關係圖(C/N=10) 61
Fig.4- 25硝酸鹽氮與總有機碳之消耗關係圖(C/N=12) 62
Fig.4- 26硝酸鹽氮與總有機碳之消耗關係圖(C/N=32) 62
Fig.4- 27 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳濃度之藻體濃度生長趨勢 63
Fig.4- 28 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳濃度之藻體生物質量之生長趨勢 64
Fig.4- 29 Chlorella sp. 培養於不同碳濃度之藻體細胞數之生長趨勢 64

參考文獻 Alejandro Ruiz-Marin , Leopoldo G. Mendoza-Espinosa , Tom Stephenson (2010) “Growth and nutrient removal in free and immobilized green algae in batch and semi-continuous cultures treating real wastewater” Bioresource Technology 101,58–64
Aurora Silva, Sonia A. Figueiredo, M. Goreti Sales, Cristina Delerue-Matos (2009) “Ecotoxicity tests using the green algae Chlorella vulgaris—A useful tool in hazardous effluents management” Journal of Hazardous Materials 167,179–185
Chang Duk Kang, Jin Young An, Tai Hyun Park, Sang Jun Sim, (2006)“Astaxanthin biosynthesis from simultaneous N and P uptake by the greenalga Haematococcus pluvialis in primary-treated wastewater” Biochemical Engineering Journal 31 ,234–238
Endong Zhang , Bing Wang , Qihua Wang , Shubiao Zhang , Budiao Zhao (2008) “Ammonia–nitrogen and orthophosphate removal by immobilized Scenedesmus sp. isolated from municipal wastewater for potential use in tertiary treatment” Bioresource Technology 99,3787–3793
Esra Tarlan, Filiz B. Dilek, Ulku Yetis(2002)“Effectiveness of algae in the treatment of a wood-based pulp and paper industry wastewater” Bioresource Technology 84,1–5
J.B.K. Park , R.J. Craggs , A.N. Shilton (2010)“Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production” Bioresource Technology
Jinsoo Kim, Bala P. Lingaraju, Rachael Rheaume, Joo-Youp Lee, Kaniz F. Siddiqui(2010)“Removal of Ammonia from Wastewater Effluent by Chlorella Vulgaris” TSINGHUA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ISSN 1007-0214 pp391-396
Jongmin Park , Hai-Feng Jin , Byung-Ran Lim , Ki-Young Park , Kisay Lee (2010) “Ammonia removal from anaerobic digestion effluent of livestock waste using green alga Scenedesmus sp. ” Bioresource Technology 101,8649–8657
Li Xin, Hu Hong-ying, Gan Ke, Yang Jia (2010) “Growth and nutrient removal properties of a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. LX1 under different kinds of nitrogen sources” Ecological Engineering 36 ,379–381
L. Traviesoa, F. Ben’tez b, E. Sa’ncheza, R. Borjaa, A. Mart’nc, M.F. Colmenarejo (2006) “Batch mixed culture of Chlorella vulgaris using settled and diluted piggery waste” ecological engineering
28,158–165
Li Xin a, Hu Hong-ying , Gan Ke b, Sun Ying-xue (2010) “Effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the growth,nutrient uptake, and lipid accumulation of a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. ” Bioresource Technology 101,
5494–5500
Li Yeguang, Li Zhongkui, Geng Yahong, Hu Hongjun, Yin Chuntao, Ouyang Yexin, Gui Jianping(2006)“Effect of N, P concentration on growth rate” Acta Ecologica Sinica, 26, 317-325.
Mark E. Baird*, Jason H. Middleton(2004)“On relating physical limits to the carbon: nitrogen ratio of unicellular algae and benthic plants” Journal of Marine Systems 49, 169– 175
M.E. Mart_õnez , S. S_anchez , J.M. Jim_enez , F. El Yous, L. Mu~noz (2000) “Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from urban wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus” Bioresource Technology
73,263±272
Michael B. Johnson & Zhiyou Wen(2010) “Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:525–534
NGUYEN NGOC BICH, MOHAMMAD ISMAIL YAZIZ and NORDIN ABDUL KADIR BAKTI(2009)“COMBINATION OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS AND EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES FOR WASTEWATER NITROGEN REMOVAL” PII: S0043-1354,00439-4
Susan G. Hegarty, Tracy A. Villareal(1998) “Effects of light level and N:P supply ratio on the competition between Phaeocystis cf. pouchetii (Hariot)Lagerheim (Prymnesiophyceae) and five diatom species” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,
226 ,241–258
Sabine Körner1, Sanjeev K. Das, Siemen Veenstra, Jan E. Vermaat (2001) “The effect of pH variation at the ammonium/ammonia equilibrium in wastewater and its toxicity to Lemna gibba” Aquatic Botany 71,71–78
Senthil Chinnasamy, Ashish Bhatnagar, Ryan W. Hunt, K.C. Das (2010)
“Microalgae cultivation in a wastewater dominated by carpet mill effluents for biofuel applications” Bioresource Technology 101,3097–3105
Sebnem Aslan, Ilgi Karapinar Kapdan(2006) “Batch kinetics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from synthetic wastewater by algae” ecological engineering 28, 64–70
Shengbing He, Gang Xue(2010) “Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) ” Journal of Hazardous Materials 178 ,895–899
Yujie Feng , Chao Li , Dawei Zhang (2011) “Lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris cultured in artificial wastewater medium” Bioresource Technology 102 ,101–105
葉俊良(2006) “在光生化反應器中以二階段策略培養微藻生產油脂之研究” 國立成功大學化學工程學系碩士論文。
張惟閔(2005) “微藻培養於新型光生化反應器之系統開發” 國立清華大學化學工程研究所碩士論文。
周裕然(2002) “多段進流去氮除磷系統穩動態處理及控制特性之研究”國立中央大學環境工程研究所博士論文
鄭玟芩(2008) “海洋微藻在氮源限制下固定CO2與生質潛能組成之研究”國立成功大學環境工程學系碩士論文
蔡孟潔,周楚洋(2005) “豬糞尿水之生物去氮除磷”農業機械學刊第14卷第4期12月
陳國帝,“環工技術於微藻再生能源生產之應用”,環境污染控制評估研討會論文急摘要,第29頁,新竹市(2009)。
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2016-09-02公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-09-02起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信