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系統識別號 U0002-0108201217291300
中文論文名稱 應用於雲端運算即時轉移之記憶體相對式修改預測機制
英文論文名稱 Related Dirty Memory Prediction Mechanism for Live Migration in Cloud Computing Systems
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 黃致翔
研究生英文姓名 Jhih-Siang Huang
學號 699450200
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-07-04
論文頁數 52頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳庭育
委員-李維聰
委員-丁建文
委員-潘仁義
委員-衛信文
中文關鍵字 虛擬機  即時轉移  預複製 
英文關鍵字 Virtual Machine  Live Migration  Pre-copy 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 虛擬化技術能提升雲端運算伺服器的運作效能。而即時轉移(Live Migration)技術主要能使伺服器(Source)發生預設性/災難性狀況時暫時關機,並且把目前伺服器狀態移到其他伺服器(Destination)上,整個過程能讓使用者不會因為目前提供服務的伺服器停止服務而中斷服務。
評估即時轉移的效能指標為停機時間(Downtime)與總轉移時間(Total Migration Time)。其中使用者會感受到使用中的服務被中斷的狀況,為停機時間(Downtime)發生的時候;目前的技術使用預複製轉移(Pre-copy Migration)雖可減少停機時間,但仍會因為多次重覆轉移相同頁面,造成多次無意義的網路轉移,使得總轉移時間變長。
不同於預複製轉移(Pre-copy Migration),在本論文中提出利用記憶體預測機制與頁面相對修改率的方法,在各疊代(Round)轉移前先判斷哪些頁面連續修改的機率較低,適合於疊代轉移階段(Interactive Pre-copy)轉移;哪些頁面連續修改的機率較高,適合於暫停-複製階段(Stop-and-copy Phase)轉移。依據記憶體頁面的特性來選擇轉移的時機,藉此減少不必要的網路轉移,進而減少總轉移時間。
英文摘要 Virtualization enhances the performance of cloud servers but live migration technique can turn off the source server temporarily when assumptive or disastrous situations occur and migrate the status of the current server to other destinations. During the process, live migration allows the customers to experience seamless services even without sensing the interruption of services.
Two major performance metrics of live migration are downtime and total migration time. When the customers feel that the service is terminated, it means the occurrence of the downtime. Many current techniques use pre-copy migration to reduce the downtime, but to migrate the same pages repeatedly may result in meaningless retransmissions and prolong the total migration time.
Different from pre-copy migration, this paper proposes to use memory prediction mechanism and related dirty rate to find out the pages with the lower dirty rate to be migrated in the interactive pre-copy phase, and the pages with the higher dirty rate to be migrated in the stop-and-copy phase. The simulation result proves that by choosing the timing for migration according to the features of the memory pages, our mechanism decreases not only unnecessary transmissions, but also the total migration time.
論文目次 目 錄
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 動機與目的 2
1.3 論文章節架構 4
第二章 背景知識與相關研究 5
2.1 伺服器虛擬化(Server Virtualization) 5
2.2 即時轉移(Live Migration) 9
2.3 相關研究探討 12
2.3.1 預複製轉移(Pre-copy Migration) 12
2.3.2 Time-Series Based Pre-copy Algorithm 19
2.3.3 基於修改頁機率預測的工作集測定算法 22
第三章 記憶體相對式修改預測 24
3.1 記憶體修改預測機制 25
3.2 頁面相對修改率 29
第四章 模擬環境與結果分析 37
4.1 環境設定 37
4.2 效能結果分析 38
第五章 結論與未來展望 49
參考文獻 50

圖目錄
圖1.1 系統虛擬化示意圖 1
圖2.1 伺服器虛擬化示意圖 6
圖2.2 兩種伺服器虛擬化實現方式 8
圖2.3 即時轉移示意圖 8
圖2.4 虛擬機轉移階段示意圖 10
圖2.5 三種轉移方案示意圖 11
圖2.6 預複製轉移(Pre-copy Migration)階段示意圖 14
圖2.7 預複製轉移(Pre-copy Migration)流程圖 18
圖2.8 Time-series流程圖 21
圖2.9 記憶體預測流程示意圖 23
圖3.1 記憶體預測示意圖 29
圖3.2 改良式記憶體預測示意圖 35
圖3.3 記憶體相對式修改預測機制流程圖 36
圖4.1 低修改率之停機時間 38
圖4.2 低修改率之總轉移時間 41
圖4.3 低修改率相對式修改預測 43
圖4.4 高修改率之停機時間 44
圖4.5 高修改率之總轉移時間 46
圖4.6 低修改率之減少轉移記憶體量 47
圖4.7 高修改率之減少轉移記憶體量 48



表目錄
表2.1 預複製轉移(Pre-copy Migration)頁面轉移真值表 15
表2.2 Time-Series頁面轉移真值表 20
表3.1 前20次頁面修改記錄 27
表3.2 頁面前10次修改記錄例子 30
表3.3 相對式修改預測頁面轉移真值表 34
表4.1 模擬環境參數 37
參考文獻 參考文獻
[1] Christopher Clark, Keir Fraser, “Live migration of virtual machines”, NSDI'05 Proceedings of the 2nd conference on Symposium on Networked Systems Design & Implementation, Vol. 2, pp. 1-14. (2005)
[2] Michael R. Hines, Umesh Deshpande, Kartik Gopalan, “Post-copy live migration of virtual machines”, ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, Vol. 43, Issue 3, July (2009)
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[4] Sun Guo-fei, Gu Jian-hua, Hu Jin-hua, Zhao Tian-hai ,“Improvement of Live Memory Migration Mechanism for Virtual Machine Based on Pre-copy”, Computer Engineering, Vol.37, No.13, July(2011), http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-JSJC201113011.htm
[5] Zhaobin Liu,Wenyu Qu ,Tao Yan ,Haitao Li ,Keqiu Li,“Hierarchical Copy Algorithm for Xen Live Migration”,2010 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery, pp.361-364, Oct. (2010)
[6] Kuno, Y. , Nii, K. ,Yamaguchi, S.,“A Study on Performance of Processes in Migrating Virtual Machines”,2011 10th International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized Systems (ISADS), pp.567–572, Mar.(2011)
[7] Haikun Liu, Hai Jin, Xiaofei Liao, Chen Yu, Cheng-Zhong Xu, “Live Virtual Machine Migration via Asynchronous Replication and State Synchronization”, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 22, pp.1986-1999, Dec.(2011)
[8] Fei Ma, Feng Liu, Zhen Liu , “Live Virtual Machine Migration Based on Improved Pre-copy Approach”, 2010 IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Sciences (ICSESS), pp.230-233,16-18 July(2010)
[9] Ibrahim, K.Z. , Hofmeyr, S, Iancu, C, Roman, E. ,“Optimized Pre-copy Live Migration for Memory Intensive Applications”, 2011 International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC), pp. 1-11, 12-18 Nov. (2011).
[10] Wentian Cui ,Meina Song , “Live Memory Migration with Matrix Bitmap Algorithm”, 2010 IEEE 2nd Symposium on Web Society (SWS),pp.277-281,16-17 Aug. (2010)

[11] Jacob Gorm. Hansen, Asger Kahl Henriksen, “Master's Thesis: Nomadic Operating Systems”, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.
[12] Kanada Y., Tarui T.,“A “Network-Paging” Based Method for Wide-Area Live-Migration of VMs”, 2011 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN),pp.268-272, 26-28 Jan. (2011).
[13] Hirofuchi, T. , Ogawa, H. , Nakada, H. , Itoh, S. , Sekiguchi, S. ,“A Live Storage Migration Mechanism over WAN for Relocatable Virtual Machine Services on Clouds”,2009 9th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid,( 2009. CCGRID '09.),pp.460-465, 18-21 May (2009)
[14] Hlavacs, H., Treutner, T.,“Predicting Web Service Levels During VM Live Migrations”,2011 5th International DMTF Academic Alliance Workshop on Systems and Virtualization Management (SVM),pp.1-10, 24-24 Oct. (2011)
[15] Zhaobin Liu, Wenyu Qu, Weijiang Liu, Keqiu Li,“Xen Live Migration with Slowdown Scheduling Algorithm”, 2010 International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing Applications and Technologies (PDCAT),pp.215-221, 8-11 Dec. (2010)
[16] Moghaddam, F.F., Cheriet, M.,“Decreasing Live Virtual Machine migration Down-time Using A Memory Page Selection Based on Memory Change PDF”, 2010 International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC),pp.355-359, 10-12 April (2010)
[17] Svard, P., Tordsson, J., Hudzia, B., Elmroth, E.,“High Performance Live Migration through Dynamic Page Transfer Reordering and Compression”, 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom),pp.542-548, Nov. 29 2011-Dec. 1 2011
[18] Xiang Zhang, Zhigang Huo, Jie Ma, Dan Meng,“Exploiting Data Deduplication to Accelerate Live Virtual Machine Migration”, 2010 IEEE International Conference on Cluster Computing (CLUSTER),pp.88-96, 20-24 Sept.(2010)
[19] Weining Liu, Tao Fan,“Live Migration of Virtual Machine Based on Recovering System and CPU Scheduling”, 2011 6th IEEE Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC),pp.303-307, 20-22 Aug. (2011)

[20] Hai Jin, Li Deng, Song Wu, Xuanhua Shi, Xiaodong Pan,“Live Virtual Machine Migration with Adaptive Memory Compression”, IEEE International Conference on Cluster Computing and Workshops, 2009. CLUSTER '09.,pp.1-10, Aug. 31 2009-Sept. 4 2009
[21] 虛擬機遷移記述漫談, http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/cn/linux/l-cn-mgrtvm1/index.html,Sept.2010
[22] Huiyong Zhang, Yuebin Bai, Zhi Li, Niandong Du, Wentao Yang,“Achieving High Throughput by Transparent Network Interface Virtualization on Multi-core Systems”, 2010 IEEE Second International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom),pp.250-257, Nov. 30 2010-Dec. 3 2010
[23] Chi-Yuan Chen, Kai-Di Chang, and Han-Chieh Chao, “Transaction Pattern based Anomaly Detection Algorithm for IP Multimedia Subsystem” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 152-161, March 2011.
[24] Liang Zhou and Han-Chieh Chao, Multimedia Traffic Security Architecture for Internet of Things”, IEEE Network, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 29-34, May 2011.
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