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系統識別號 U0002-0108201214582100
中文論文名稱 基於服務時延預測之車載換手負載平衡機制
英文論文名稱 A Load-balancing Handover Mechanism for VANET based on Service Delay Prediction
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 林宗翰
研究生英文姓名 Tsung-Han Lin
學號 699450028
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-07-04
論文頁數 46頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳庭育
委員-李維聰
委員-丁建文
委員-潘仁義
委員-衛信文
中文關鍵字 車載行動網路  存取點換手  負載平衡 
英文關鍵字 VANET  Handover  Load-Balancing 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 論文提要內容:
隨著無線行動網路的迅速發展,現今使用交通工具作為移動平台的網路通訊系統的車載網路也開始受到重視,要如何有效結合無線基礎建設來提供高品質的傳輸服務已成為重要研究主軸之一。車載網路下的終端設備有較高的移動速度,所以使用者在使用無線網路服務經常會面臨頻繁換手的問題,若每次選取的換手存取點有過長的服務延遲時間將會影響網路服務的品質,對於語音、多媒體等有即時性服務要求的訊務則會大大遭受服務延遲的影響。過去車載換手存取點的挑選往往只依訊號強度指標(RSSI)來選擇則無法將流量有效分散,沒有考慮每次換手存取點本身服務負載量對使用者服務所造成的延遲,而車載網路中有不同的需求的服務類型,在存取點中會有不同程度的負載和不同程度的服務等待延遲,而目前方法無法依不同類型服務的負載來為行動節點選擇合適的存取點。有鑑於此,本篇論文提出服務時延預測的換手機制,使用存取點服務分類的封包排程架構,每個無線服務區域皆由數個存取點事先預建,利用存取點控制器來收集各服務區域的服務情形,本研究依排程機制評估區域內存取點各類服務的負載和服務延遲,能讓有即時性服務需求的行動節點能被分配到等待服務延遲較小的存取點,這樣的負載評估選取到的存取點不僅能減少使用者服務的等待延遲且能讓前方區域負載平衡。
英文摘要 Abstract:
With the rapid development of wireless mobile networks, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) that uses transportation tools as the mobile platforms has received great attention and how to integrate VANETs with wireless infrastructure to provide high-quality transmission services also has currently become one of the important research topics. The terminal equipment in the VANET has a higher mobile speed, so the mobile node in the network are often face handover frequently. If the handoff AP each selected have long service delay will affect the quality of network service,the voice service,and video service which has real-time request will be influence by the service delay. Previous researches in VANET handoff problem are focus on reduce the latency in scan period, and didn't consider the service delay cause by the load in the AP and just choose the AP by its RSSI. And not distinguish between different types of services in the VANET, their have different levels of load in each access point will cause different service delay. Currently approach unable choose the appropriate AP for mobile node by the load of each different service.
For this reason, this paper uses a packet scheduler for APs' classified services to present a handover scheme based on service delay prediction. Every wireless service area is pre-established by several APs and the service is monitored and collected by the AP Controller (APC). According to the scheduling mechanism, we can estimate the load and service delay of different service types to the APs in the area. Our mechanism allows the mobile node of real time service needs can be assigned to the smaller access point waiting service delay. Our method can selected access point not only reduce the waiting delay of the network service and make the front area load balancing.
論文目次 目 錄
圖目錄 V
表目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 - 1 -
1.1 前言 - 1 -
1.2 動機與目的 - 1 -
1.3 論文章節架構 - 2 -
第二章 背景知識與相關研究 - 4 -
2.1車載行動網路(Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) - 4 -
2.2 無線網路下之換手程序 - 5 -
2.3 IEEE 802.11標準之無線網路的負載平衡機制 - 6 -
2.3.1 存取點選擇機制相關研究介紹 - 7 -
2.3.2 負載平衡指標 - 9 -
2.4 網路服務分類機制 - 10 -
2.4.1 乙太網路中的服務分類 - 10 -
2.4.2 IEEE 802.11e - 11 -
2.5 封包排程機制(Queue Scheduling) - 12 -
2.5.1 優先權佇列(Priority Queue, PQ) - 13 -
2.5.2 公平佇列(Fair Queuing, FQ) - 14 -
2.5.3 加權公平佇列(Weight Fair Queue, WFQ) - 15 -
2.5.4 加權輪詢機制(Weight Round Robin, WRR) - 16 -
第三章 服務延遲預測換手機制 - 18 -
3.1 環境建置與存取點控制架構 - 19 -
3.2 分類服務的服務品質 - 21 -
3.3 存取點的負載評估方式 - 23 -
3.4 存取類別的服務等待延遲預測 - 25 -
3.5 以服務導向暨服務延遲預測的區域平衡 - 28 -
3.6 存取點延遲等級表 - 30 -
3.7 Service Delay Predict 存取點選擇機制 - 32 -
第四章 模擬環境與模擬結果分析 - 34 -
4.1 服務延遲分析 - 35 -
4.2 區域內存取點負載平衡分析 - 41 -
第五章 結論與未來展望 - 44 -
參考文獻 - 45 -

圖目錄
圖 2.1 IEEE 802.11e存取類別 - 12 -
圖 2.2 優先權佇列(Priority Queue) - 14 -
圖 2.3 公平佇列(Fair Queue) - 15 -
圖 2.4 加權公平佇列 (Weight Fair Queue) - 16 -
圖 2.5 加權輪詢(Weight Round Robin) - 17 -
圖3.1 整體系統的架構 - 20 -
圖3.2 存取點上傳的訊息 - 21 -
圖3.3 存取點支援QoS服務示意圖 - 21 -
圖3.4 封包排程示意圖 - 22 -
圖3.5 存取類別的輪詢層級示意圖 - 25 -
圖3.6 服務延遲計算流程圖 - 26 -
圖3.7存取點的資料量示意圖 - 27 -
圖3.8服務導向的存取點選擇 - 29 -
圖3.9 ITU-T G.1010 –User QoS requirements[19] - 32 -
圖3.10 Mobile Node Handover Architecture - 33 -
圖4.1 模擬場景圖 - 34 -
圖4.2 四類服務型態使用者的延遲平均變化 - 37 -
圖4.3 四類服務型態使用者的延遲平均變化 - 37 -
圖4.4 四類服務型態使用者的延遲平均變化 - 38 -
圖4.5 VO類別使用者的延遲變化情形 - 39 -
圖4.6 VI類別使用者的服務延遲變化 - 39 -
圖4.7 BE類別使用者的服務延遲變化 - 40 -
圖4.8 BK類別使用者的服務延遲變化 - 40 -
圖4.9負載平衡分析圖(4個區域存取點) - 42 -
圖4.10負載平衡分析圖(5個區域存取點) - 43 -

表目錄
表3.1為圖3.7中各存取類別的服務等待延遲 - 28 -
表3.2為圖3.8中兩個存取點的狀態 - 30 -
表3.3各AC服務延遲等級表 - 31 -
表4.1 模擬參數表 - 35 -
參考文獻 參考文獻
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[2] N. Choi, S. Choi, Y. Seokt, et al., "A Solicitation-based IEEE 802.11p MAC Protocol for Roadside to Vehicular Networks," Mobile Networking for Vehicular Environments, 2007, pp. 91-96.
[3] Y. A. Powar and V. Apte, “Improving the IEEE 802.11 MAC Layer Handoff Latency to Support Multimedia Traffic,” Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2009), 2009, pp. 1-6.
[4] K. Zhu, D. Niyato, P. Wang, E. Hossain and D. I. Kim, “Mobility and handoff management in vehicular networks: a survey,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, Oct. 2009.
[5] Y. Xiao, "IEEE 802.11e: A QoS provisioning at the MAC layer", IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 11, no. 3, pp.72 -79 2004
[6] C. Semeria Supporting Differentiated Service Classes: Queue Scheduling Disciplines, 2002 :Juniper Netw.
[7] L.-H. Yen, T.-T. Yeh and K.-H. Chi, “Load Balancing in IEEE 802.11 Networks,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 13, 2009, pp. 56-64.
[8] Y. FUKUDA and Y. OIE, “Decentralized Access Point Selection Architecture for Wireless LANs Deployability and Robustness,” Vehicular Technology Conference, vol. 2, 2004, pp. 1103-1107.
[9] Li-Hsing Yen,Tse-Tsung Yeh, "SNMP-Based approach to load distribution in IEEE 802.11 networks," IEEE VTC 2006-Spring, Melbourne, Australia, May 2006, pp. 1196-1200.
[10] Kuang-Hui Chi and Li-Hsing Yen, "Load balancing for Non-homogeneous IEEE 802.11 networks using association control," work in progress.
[11] M. Heusse, F. Rousseau, G. berger-Sabbatel, and A. Duda, "Performance anomaly of 802.11b," in Proc. Infocom 2003, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2003, pp. 836-843.
[12] O. Brickley, S. Rea, and D. Pesch, “Load Balancing for QoS Enhancement in IEEE 802.11e WLANs Using Cell Breathing Techniques,” Proc. IFIP Mobile and Wireless Communication Networks Conf., Int’l Federation for Information Processing, 2005, www.aws.cit.ie/personnel/ Papers/Paper268.pdf.
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[14] E. H. Ong and J.Y. Khan, “An Integrated Load Balancing Scheme for Future Wireless Networks,” International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing ( ISWPC 2009), 2009, pp. 1-6.
[15] S. Tartarelli and G. Nunzi, “QoS Management and Congestion Control in Wireless Hotspots,” Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS 2006), 2006, pp. 95-105.
[16] H. Velayos, V. Aleo and G. Karlsson, Load Balancing in Overlapping Wireless LAN Cells, Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '98), 1998.
[17] D. Chiu and R. Jain. Analysis of the increase and decrease algorithm for congestion avoidance in computer networks. Journal of Computer Networks and ISDN, 17(1):1-14, June 1989.
[18] Tuysuz, M.F.; Mantar, H.A.; , "Access point selection for improving the voice quality and overall throughput in wireless LANs," 2010 International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM), pp. 165-169, 23-25 Sept. 2010 .
[19] ITU-T, "G.1010: End-user multimedia QoS categories," 2001.
[20] Tin-Yu Wu;Wei-Tsong Lee;Fong-Hao Liu;Hung-Lin chan;Tsung-Han Lin ,"An Efficient Pre-scanning Scheme for Handoff in Cooperative Vehicular Networks,"International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 2011),2011, pp.583-587.
[21] Cisco,Catalyst 2948G-L3 and Catalyst 4908G-L3 Software Feature and Configuration Guide
[22] S. Senkindu and H. A. Chan, "Enabling end-to-end quality of service in a wlan-wired network," in Military Communications Conference, 2008. MILCOM 2008. IEEE, Nov. 2008, pp. 1-7.
[23] Chi-Yuan Chen, Kai-Di Chang, and Han-Chieh Chao, "Transaction- Pattern-Based Anomaly Detection Algorithm for IP Multimedia Subsystem, " IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 152-161, March 2011.
[24] Zhou L, Chao H-C: Multimedia Traffic Security Architecture for the Internet of Things. IEEE Network2011,25(3):29–34. doi: 10.1109/MNET.2011.5772059
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