||Online Reading Comprehension Strategies
Used by Higher- and Lower-Achieving University EFL Students
||Department of English
online reading strategies
hither- and lower-achievers
||此次研究旨在探討台灣大學生使用線上閱讀策略的運用,藉以提昇閱讀理解。為達此目的,兩項研究分別進行。第一項研究以一班34人的大一新生為主 (20人為高成就者以及14人為低成就者),第二項研究以兩班16人二年級以上的大學生為主其中8人為控制組(4人為高成就者,4人為低成就者),8人為實驗組(4人為高成就者,4人為低成就者)。收集研究資料依序為量化為先,質化為後。完成8週和6週的資料蒐集後,量化與質化分析分別完成。研究結果顯示: 其一、在第一項研究中,高成就與低成就學生增進了閱讀策略的了解與使用;相反地, 第二項研究中,實驗組高成就與低成就的學生在閱讀策略了解與使用上並未有顯著的增加。除此之外,第一項研究顯示,諸多閱讀策略與閱讀成績有相關;然而,此項結果並未在第二項研究中發現。此外,第一項與第二項研究中的高成就與低成就的參與者對此項閱讀策略皆保持正面的觀感。
||This research intends to investigate reading strategies used by EFL readers of a Taiwanese university in the enhancement of comprehension within academic contexts when reading online texts. To meet this goal, two empirical studies (Study 1 and Study 2) were conducted separately. A class of 34 freshmen (20 higher-achievers and 14 lower-achievers) joined the first study and two classes of 16 including 8 students (4 higher-achievers and 4 lower-achievers) in the control group and 8 students (4 higher-achievers and 4 lower-achievers) in the experimental group participated in the second study. Data collection were undertaken in two sequential ways that were designed with an initial quantitative survey, followed by a qualitative way during 8 weeks for the first study and 6 weeks for the second study. Completing the data collection, the data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Following that, the research results revealed that: First, in the first study, both higher- and lower-achievers improved their awareness and application of online reading strategies. In contrast, both higher- and lower-achievers in the experimental group had no significant increase in their awareness of and application of reading strategies. In addition, in the first study higher- and lower-achievers had correlations between multiple reading-strategies and reading performance; however, this was not the case in the experimental group of the second study. Besides that, both higher- and lower-achievers in the first and second studies held positive perceptions towards these online reading strategies.
Table of Contents iii
List of Tables vii
List of Figures ix
Chapter I: Introduction 1
Research Purposes 10
Significance of the Study 11
Organization of the Dissertation 12
Chapter II: Literature Review 14
Theories of Reading, Strategies and Reading Strategies 14
Definition of reading 14
Purposeful reading 15
Meaning-constructing reading 16
Successful reading 21
Definition of online reading 22
Definition of strategies 23
Historical theoretical views about strategies 23
Current theoretical views about strategies 24
Definition of reading strategies 25
Metacognition, cognition and reading strategies for comprehension 27
Awareness, action of reading strategies for comprehension 28
Online Reading Comprehension Strategies 31
Inferencing strategies 31
Three components of inferences 32
Regression of inferences 33
Self-regulated strategies 34
Metacognition and self-regulated strategies 34
Monitoring and control 35
Regression of self-regulation 36
Support strategies 37
Metalinguistic level 37
Text level 38
Online text level 39
Online context level 39
Online dictionary level 40
Research on Reading Comprehension Strategies 41
Research within L1 and L2 contexts 41
Research within L2 contexts 44
Research within Taiwanese contexts 47
Chapter III: Research Methods 52
Study 1 53
Reading material 56
Data analysis 62
Quantitative analysis 62
Qualitative analysis 66
Study 2 68
Reading material 72
Data analysis 76
Quantitative analysis 76
Qualitative analysis 80
Chapter IV: Results 82
Results for Reliability 82
Study 1 83
Results from quantitative analysis 85
Question 1 85
Question 2 91
Question 3 97
Question 4 108
Results from qualitative analysis 109
Advantages of using online reading comprehension strategies 110
Disadvantages of using online reading comprehension strategies 113
Study 2 115
Results from quantitative analysis 117
Question 1 117
Question 2 124
Question 3 130
Question 4 139
Results from qualitative analysis 140
Advantages of using (online) reading comprehension strategies in the control
and experimental groups 141
Disadvantages of using (online) reading comprehension strategies in the
control and experimental groups 144
Chapter V: Discussion 147
Study 1 147
Question 1 147
Imbalance of awareness 147
Gained awareness 148
The role of L1 149
Question 2 150
Flexible use of online reading comprehension strategies 150
Monitoring and control 151
Active and multiple-strategic users 151
Problem solvers 152
Question 3 153
Strategies and reading comprehension 153
Significances between pre- and post-tests 154
Interactive reading 155
Question 4 156
Diversities of awareness strategies and positive perceptions 156
Adjusting the trend of reading and positive perceptions 157
Strategic interventions 158
Study 2 160
Question 1 160
Imbalance of awareness 160
Gained awareness 161
The role of L1 161
Question 2 162
Flexible use of online reading comprehension strategies 162
Monitoring and control 163
Active and multiple-strategic users 163
Problem solvers 164
Question 3 164
Strategies and reading comprehension 164
Significances between pre- and post-tests 165
Interactive reading 166
Question 4 167
Satisfaction with the strategies 167
Strategic interventions 168
Reading scores 168
Chapter VI: Conclusion 170
Use of online reading strategies 171
Strategic interventions 173
Pedagogical Implications 174
Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research 176
List of Tables
Table 1 Divergences between Higher- and Lower-achieving Students’ Performance of Reading Comprehension Strategies 4
Table 2 Reliability for Questionnaires 83
Table 3 Age of Participants 83
Table 4 Majors of Participants 84
Table 5 Students’ Awareness of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies at Pre- and Post-stages 86
Table 6 Higher- and Lower-achieving Students’ Awareness of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies at Pre- and Post-phases 90
Table 7 Students’ Application of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies at Pre- and Post-stages 92
Table 8 Comparisons of Higher- and Lower-achieving Students’ Applying Online Reading Comprehension Strategies at Pre- and Post-stages 96
Table 9 Average Scores of Final Post-test between Higher-level and Lower-level Achievers 98
Table 10 Average Scores of Reading at Pre- and Post-tests 99
Table 11 Average Scores of the Readings between Higher- and Lower-achievers at Pre- and Post-tests 102
Table 12 Comparison between Higher- and Lower-achieving Students’ Awareness and Application of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies and Final Post-test 106
Table 13 Comparison between Three Predictors and Final Post-test 107
Table 14 Comparisons between Higher- and Lower- achieving Students’
Perceptions of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies 109
Table 15 Age of Participants 115
Table 16 Majors of Participants 116
Table 17 Students’ Awareness of (Online) Reading Comprehension Strategies at Pre- and Post-stages in the Control and Experimental Groups 118
Table 18 Higher- and Lower-achieving Students’ Awareness of (Online) Reading Comprehension Strategies at Pre- and Post-phases in the Control and Experimental Groups 122
Table 19 Students’ Application of (Online) Reading Comprehension Strategies at Pre- and Post-stages in the Control and Experimental Groups 125
Table 20 Comparisons of Higher- and Lower-achieving Students’ Applying (Online) Reading Comprehension Strategies at Pre- and Post-stages in the Control and Experimental Groups 128
Table 21 Average Scores of Final Post-test between the Control and Experimental Groups 131
Table 22 Average Scores of the Readings at Pre- and Post-tests 132
Table 23 Average Scores of the Readings between Higher- and Lower-level Participants in the Control and Experimental Groups 135
Table 24 Comparisons between Higher- and Lower-achieving Students’ Awareness and Application of (Online) Reading Comprehension Strategies and Final Post-test in the Control and Experimental Groups 137
Table 25 Comparisons between Higher- and Lower-achieving Students’ Perceptions of (Online) Reading Comprehension Strategies in the Control and Experimental Groups 140
List of Figures
Figure 1 Flowchart of Measuring Procedures for Study 1 56
Figure 2 A Sample of Screen-shot for Part of a Reading Material 57
Figure 3 Procedures for Qualitative Analysis 68
Figure 4 Flowchart of Measuring Procedures for Study 2 72
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