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系統識別號 U0002-0107201414265900
中文論文名稱 歐洲聯盟因應境外移民之規範:以德國為例
英文論文名稱 A Study on the Response of European Union to Immigration: The Case of Germany
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 洪孟君
研究生英文姓名 Meng-Chun Hung
學號 699290333
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-19
論文頁數 115頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭秋慶
委員-廖揆祥
委員-洪丁福
中文關鍵字 德國  移民政策  歐盟藍卡  非法移民 
英文關鍵字 Germany  Immigration Policy  EU Blue Card  Irregular Migration 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 移民政策一直以來都是屬於歐盟會員國的主權,然而歐洲統合的深化,並且在歐盟內建立共同市場,而透過歐盟層級來主導,以共同維護歐盟內部安全。歐盟關注移民議題主要原因共有三點,第一,由於歐盟出生率自60年代開始往下滑,人口結構開始改變;第二,高技術人員之不足;最後,第五次擴大的影響與非法移民問題。而德國在歐盟內具有政治與經濟地位,移民人數又為歐盟內最多之國家,但人口成長卻呈現負成長之現象,因此做為探討之對象。本論文以政策研究法與推拉理論作為主要架構,並分為四部分,首先探討歐盟需要移民之原因;第二,論述歐盟移民政策、合法移民之法律規範與防範非法移民之措施;第三,探究德國移民政策之內容;最後評估移民政策與歐盟藍卡之成效,以及防範非法移民之效果。
英文摘要 The sovereignty of drawing up immigration policy belongs to Member states of the European Union, however the process of European integration and the forming of common market propels the EU to be a leading role to preserve internal security within its boundary. There are three reasons that the EU focuses on the migration issue, the first reason is that sine 1960s the birth rate had begun sliding down, the demographic structure has been changed; the second reason is the deficiency of the high-qualified workforces; and another reason is the impact of the fifth enlargement of the EU and the problem of irregular migration.

This thesis takes Germany for case study because Germany possesses the major economic and political power, and the most immigrant population in the EU while their birth rate is the lowest among EU countries and their natural population growth started to shrink since 1990s.

Based on policy analysis and Push And Pull Theory, this dissertation is divided into four parts. The first part discusses the reasons why the EU needs immigrant population. The second and third parts include the process of the EU’s legal procedures to immigrants, measures against illegal immigration, and German immigration policy. The last part estimates the effects of the EU and Germany applying the immigration policy, the impression of EU blue card, and the outcome after controlling illegal immigration.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法 3
第三節 文獻探討 7
第四節 研究範圍與限制 11
第五節 研究架構 11
第二章 歐洲聯盟需要移民政策之原因 13
第一節 歐盟面臨低生育率與人口老化 13
第二節 高技術人才不足 17
第三節 歐盟第五次擴大後之影響與非法移民問題 18
第三章 歐洲聯盟因應移民之作為 23
第一節 歐洲聯盟移民政策 23
第二節 制定合法移民之法律規範 40
第三節 防範非法移民之措施 51
第四章 德國的移民規範 57
第一節 德國外來移民之背景 57
第二節 外國人法之規範 62
第三節 新國籍法、綠卡計畫與新移民法之規範 65
第五章 歐洲聯盟移民規範執行之成效 77
第一節 歐盟外來移民人口之結構 77
第二節 高技術人才引入歐盟之成效 83
第三節 歐盟公民流動情形與遏止非法移民之成效 90
第六章 結論 103
參考文獻 107
圖目錄
〈圖2-1〉 1960-2010年歐盟出生率與死亡率14
〈圖5-1〉 2004-2012年歐盟與德國之自然增長率77
〈圖5-2〉 2008-2011年外來人民移入歐盟之數目78
〈圖5-3〉2008-2010年歐盟核發第三國國民居留許可之依據79
〈圖5-4〉 2012年歐盟藍卡核發之數量84
〈圖5-5〉 2008與2012年第三國國民為高技術人員之比例.85
〈圖5-6〉 2000-2012年歐盟公民移入德國之人數94
〈圖5-7〉 2011-2013年非法移民遣返之方式96
〈圖5-8〉 2008-2012年非法滯留歐盟之人數97
〈圖5-9〉 2000-2012年德國查獲非法移民與非法滯留之人數99
〈圖5-10〉2009-2013年歐盟查獲歐盟非法移民、非法滯留與遣返回國之人數100
〈表2-1〉 2008-2010年歐盟人口變化比率15
〈表2-2〉 1999-2012年德國出生率與出生人數16
〈表2-3〉 歐盟會員國東部邊境交界國20
〈表4-1〉 1970-1985年德國的外國人口數59
〈表4-2〉 1991年後難民庇護者與遷出者移入德國之人口數61
〈表5-1〉 德國移入與移出之人數80
〈表5-2〉 2010年國際移民分布最多的國家82
〈表5-3〉 2009-2012年德國國內第三國國民為高技術移民之數量89
〈表5-4〉 舊會員國(EU-15)同意8個中東歐會員國自由流動權90
〈表5-5〉 歐盟第五次擴大過後,新會員國的外來移民移入移出之人數92
〈表5-6〉 2013年歐洲外部邊境管理署每季非法移民查獲之人數98
參考文獻 中文專書
吳定(1989),《公共政策個案集》,臺北市:政治大學公共行政企業管理教育中心。
夏曉鵑、陳信行、黃德北編(2008),《跨界流離:全球化下的移民與移工(上冊)》,臺北市:臺灣社會研究雜誌社。
張明貴(1998),《政策分析》,臺北市:五南圖書出版公司。
張福昌(2011),《歐盟司法與內政合作:反恐議題解析》,臺北市:臺灣商務印書館公司。
黃克先譯(2006),《客人?外人?遷移在歐洲(1800~)》,臺北市 : 巨流圖書公司。
黃國治譯(2008),「勞工遷移、彈性化與全球化」,收於夏曉鵑等編,《跨界流離: 全球化下的移民與移工(上冊)》,台北市:台灣社會研究雜誌社。
廖正宏(1985),《人口遷移》,臺北市 : 三民書局。
中文期刊、論文
王泰銓(1991),「歐洲單一市場之理想與實踐」,《經社法制論叢》,第8期,頁37-56。
卓忠宏(2007),「歐盟-地中海區域移民問題之探討」,《淡江大學歐盟資訊中心通訊》,第14期,頁15-19。
張福昌(2009),「歐洲聯盟反恐政策初探」,《歐洲國際評論》,第五期,頁109-145。
游茜荻(2004),「德國外籍勞工問題之研究」,南華大學歐洲研究所碩士論文。
楊君仁(2009),「德國移民法制之變遷及其對我之借鏡」,《經社法制論叢》,第44期,頁1-38。
盧倩儀(2007),「發展中的人類安全概念及其在歐盟非法移民問題上之適用」,《問題與研究》,第46卷第4期,頁27-51。
Books
Boswell, Christina & Geddes, Andrew (2011), Migration and Mobility in the European Union, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Geddes, Andrew (2008), Immigration and European Integration: Beyond Fortress Europe? Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Geddes, Andrew (2003), The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe, London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Haselwanter, Stephanie (2010), Immigration and the Politics of Identity in the
European Union: Comparative Perspectives of Immigration and Integration Policy, Saarbrucken: Verlag Dr. Muller.
Kahanec, Martin & Zimmermann, Klaus F., et al.(2010) “ EU Labor Markets After Post-Enlargement Migration ”, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Zimmermann, Klaus F., et al. (2007), Immigration Policy and the Labor Market: The German Experience and Lessons for Europe, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Articles
Balch, Alex & Geddes, Andrew (2011), “The Development of the EU Migration and Asylum Regime”, in Huub Dijstelbloem (eds.), Migration and the New Technological Borders of Europe, Hampshire: Palgrave.
Borkert, Maren & Bosswick, Wolfgang (2012), the Case of Germany, in: Giovanna Zincone, Rinus Penninx & Maren Borkert (eds.), Migration Policymaking in Europe: The Dynamics of Actors and Contexts in Past and Present, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Fassmann, Heinz & Lane, David (2009), “Migration and Mobility in Europe: An Introduction”, in Heinz Fassmann, Max Haller & David Lane (eds.), Migration and Mobility in Europe: Trends, Patterns and Control, Northampton: Edward Elgar.
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Kaiser, Lutz C. & Paul, Regine (2011), Differential Inclusion in Germany’s Conservative Welfare State: Policy Legacies and Structural Constraints, in Emma Carmel, et al. (eds.), Migration and Welfare in the New Europe: Social Protection and the Challenges of Integration, Bristol: Policy Press.
Periodicals
Bolesta, Andrzej (2004), “New Immigration Policy in Europe”, TIGER Working Paper Series, No. 70, pp. 1-15.
Jacoby, Tamar (2011), “Germany’s Immigration Dilemma: How Can Germany Attract the Workers it Needs?” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 90, Iss. 2.
Kruse, Imke, et al. (2003), “The Failure of Immigration Reform in Germany”, German Politics, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 129-145.
Mushaben, Joyce Marie (2011), “Citizenship and Migration Policies under Merkel’s Grand Coalition”, German Politics, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 376-391.
Sussmuth, Rita (2009), “The Future of Migration and Integration Policy in Germany”, Migration Policy Institute, pp. 1-23.
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COM(2004) 401 final, 02.06.2004.
COM(2008) 68 final, 13.02.2008.
COM(2010) 378 final, 13.07.2010.
COM(2010) 379 final, 13.07.2010.
COM(2013) 151 final, 25.03.2013.
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(23.12.2013)
Immigration: Family Reunification, DG Home Affairs.
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Herm, Anne, “Recent Migration Trends: Citizens of EU-27 Member States Become Ever More Mobile While EU Remains Attractive to Non-EU Citizens”, Eurostat, available from: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-08-098/EN/KS-SF-08-098-EN.PDF (12.02.2014)
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德國官方網站
Auslandergesetz, Die Bundesauslanderbeauftragte, available from:
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Bundespolizei, Aufgaben und Verwendungen, available from: http://www.bundespolizei.de/DE/06Die-Bundespolizei/Aufgaben-Verwendungen/aufgaben-verwendungen_node.html (06.05.2014)
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網路新聞、評論
Act on the Residence, Economic Activity and Integration of Foreigners in the Federal Territory, (20.04.2014)
“An EU 'Blue Card' for high-skilled immigrants?”, Euractiv,
(10.12.2013)
Auslandergesetz vom 28.04.1965, available from:
(14.03.2014)
Auslandergesetz vom 09. 07.1990, (14.03.2014)
“The European Pact on Immigration and Asylum”, EurActiv,
(21.10.2013)
The Stockholm Programme: Home Affairs, House of Lords EU Committee 25th Report of Session 2008–09, available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200809/ldselect/ldeucom/175/175.pdf (23.01.2014)
王婧,「甚麼人可加入德國籍?」,大紀元
(15.03.2014)
「英國退休年齡推至69歲 創發達國家最高紀錄」,中國新聞網,
(13.04.2014)
「德國的人才外流現象日益嚴重」,德國印象,
(20.03.2014)
呂雪慧,「借鏡德國晚退政策」,工商時報,民國102年10月20日。
國際職業標準分類,詳細分類參考, (15.04.2014)
推拉理論,全人教育百寶箱,
(12.12.2013)
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