||The influence of web-based corrective feedback as grammatical input enhancement on EFL writing
||Department of English
corrective feedback (CF)
||這項為期18週的研究主要在探討網路化修訂回饋對以英文為外語的學生之寫作是否(1)有短期的效應(亦即對學生的本文修訂是否有立即的改進); (2)有長期的效應(亦即對學生之後的英文寫作是否有文法上的改進); (3) 老師的修訂回饋是否對某一類的錯誤比較有效; (4) 語料庫查詢對這些中級初階以英文為外語的學生而言，是否可以當作有效的自我修訂英文作文的工具，來改善某些英文連詞或句型結構的問題。十六位中華大學外文系二年級的學生參與此項研究，該研究進行一學期，學生從第3週開始，以3週為一個循環繳交初稿及修訂稿。老師網路化修訂回饋主要針對前一學期初步研究找出的五大類錯誤(句型結構; 動詞錯誤; 用字錯誤; 先行詞、名詞、和冠詞; 代名詞)為主。此研究從16位學生繳交的4篇初稿、4篇修訂稿，共128篇英文作文中，總計有540個經老師標示的標靶錯誤作為統計分析。除此之外，學生也在學期初有文法前測和作文前測，學期末有文法後測和作文後測，來檢視老師網路化修訂回饋對學生文法及寫作修訂正確率是否有改進。老師網路化修訂回饋主要連結有3大項: (1) 老師自製針對學生標靶錯誤的文法解說網頁; (2) 免費的網路ESL英文辭典; (3) 免費的語料庫查詢連結。此實證研究結果顯示: (1) 老師網路化修訂回饋對學生英文寫作本文的錯誤修訂有不錯的效果; (2) 老師網路化修訂回饋對學生之後的英文寫作的文法正確率則有不同的效果，用「錯誤比率」、「修訂正確率」、「文法前測比對文法後測」、「作文前測比對作文後測」當作評量基準時出現不同的結果。(3) 先行詞、名詞、和冠詞，代名詞以及動詞類的錯誤比較容易經由老師網路化修訂回饋獲得改善 (4)這些中級初階以英文為外語的學生可以經由語料庫查詢來有效的自我修訂英文寫作錯誤，尤其是將已經查詢好結果的資料連結用關鍵字置中的方式呈現給學生時效果更佳。
||The main purpose of this 18-week study is to explore (1) whether web-based teacher corrective feedback (CF) has short-term effects on L2 writing (i.e., improved accuracy in their revisions of the same text); (2) whether web-based teacher CF has long-term effects on L2 writing (i.e., significant improvements in syntactical and lexical accuracy in 18 weeks when students write new pieces of writing); (3) whether web-based, focused, metalinguistic CF is more effective when targeting certain types of errors than others (i.e., are some errors more 'treatable' than others); and (4) whether concordance feedback can be an effective self-editing tool to help low-intermediate EFL learners revise certain types of errors such as collocations and sentence patterns. Sixteen university sophomores of Chung Hua University, all of whom had low-intermediate English proficiency, submitted 4 take-home writing assignments in three-week cycles, with a first draft in week 1, teacher's CF in week 2, and students' revision in week 3. Five most frequent error types (i.e., the targeted errors) were identified based on a pilot study. Altogether 128 essays (i.e., four drafts and four revisions of these 16 students) and 540 targeted errors were included in statistical analysis. In addition, a pre-test-post-test design was adopted to investigate the effect of intervention (CF and student revision) on writing accuracy. This was done by comparing data from an in-class diagnostic essay (i.e., essay pretest) and error correction practice (i.e., grammar pretest) given in the beginning of the semester to that from the semester-end essay revision and grammar posttest to see whether students could correct more targeted errors after they had been exposed to web-based teacher CF for one semester. At the same time they are also requested to revise the original essay pretest with teacher's written CF, which was then treated as an essay posttest, to investigate whether they could revise the targeted errors more effectively after they had focused on five major targeted errors for one semester. Teacher CF mainly included the following three sources: (1) grammar web pages designed by the researcher that offered grammatical explanation and sentence examples of the targeted errors; (2) online ESL learner's dictionary entries; and (3) teacher-recommended corpus search. This empirical evidence showed that (1) teacher CF had beneficial short-term effects on the immediate revisions of participants' writing drafts, especially when their prior grammar knowledge about these five error types was considered; (2) written CF had mixed impact on students' new pieces of writing and the acquisition of certain grammar structures when four indicators (i.e., error rates; successfully corrected ratios; grammar pretest vs. grammar posttest; and essay pretest vs. essay posttest) were concerned; (3) out of the five targeted error types, DNA (i.e., determiners, nouns, and articles), pronoun, and verb errors were more 'treatable' than other errors; and (4) concordance feedback was fairly effective in helping low-intermediate EFL learners revise collocations and sentence patterns, especially when they were given teacher pre-edited URL links displayed in a noticeable KWIC (key word in context) format.
||Table of Contents
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………………………….…….……… ...ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT…………………………………………………….….……………..i ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………….……………..…v
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………….……….........viii
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………….………...... ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Issues 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 6
1.3 Research Questions 7
1.4 Significance of the study 8
1.5 Definition of Key Terms 10
1.5.1 Web-based corrective feedback 10
1.5.2 Grammatical input enhancement 10
1.5.3 Treatable vs. untreatable errors 12
1.5.4 Direct vs. indirect feedback 13
1.5.5 Error logs 14
1.5.6 Corpora and data-driven learning (DDL) 15
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 17
2.1 Corrective Feedback on L2 Writing 17
2.1.1 The debate of error correction 18
2.1.2 How should teachers give feedback? 24
2.1.3 Content vs. form 26
2.2 Grammatical Input Enhancement 28
2.3 Corpora and Data-driven Learning (DDL) 30
CHAPTER 3 METHOD 33
3.1 Basic Parameters 33
3.1.1 Participants, sample size, and duration 34
3.1.2 Overall proficiency level of the subjects 34
3.1.3 Settings 35
3.2 Instructional Procedures 36
3.3 Research Design 42
3.3.1 Measures 42
3.3.2 Data collection 47
3.3.3 Measurement approaches 50
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 55
4.1 Immediate Effects of Written CF: Errors Corrected by the Students in Their Revisions 55
4.2 Delayed Effects of Written CF: Impact of Written CF on students’ New Pieces of Writing 59
4.2.1 Error rate 60
4.2.2 Successfully corrected ratio 63
4.2.3 Grammar pretest vs. grammar posttest 65
4.2.4 Essay pretest vs. essay posttest 67
4.3 Effects of Written CF on Different Linguistic Error Domains: ‘Treatable’ vs. ‘Untreatable’ Errors 71
4.4 Effects of Self-help Writing Tools: Online ESL Learner’s dictionary Entries and Corpora 76
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 81
5.1 Issues of Research Parameters and Research Designs 81
5.2 Immediate Effect of Written CF 85
5.3 Delayed Effect of Written CF 87
5.4 Treatable vs. Untreatable Errors 92
5.5 Concordance Feedback on L2 Writing 95
5.6 Questionnaire Responses 100
5.7 Error Logs 102
5.8 Conclusion 104
5.8.1 Summary of the main findings 104
5.8.2 Pedagogical implications 109
5.8.3 Limitations of the study 111
5.8.4 Suggestions for future research 112
Appendix A: Grammar Web Pages Designed by the Researcher 125
Appendix B: Diagnostic Essay – Essay Pretest 162
Appendix C: Error Correction Practice – Grammar Pretest 163
Appendix D: Grammar knowledge questionnaire 165
Appendix E: Instruction of Four Essay Assignments 167
Appendix F: Error Classification System 171
Appendix G: Error Correction Practice – Grammar Posttest 174
Appendix H: Questionnaire of English Intermediate Writing 177
List of Tables
Table 1: Examples of Label on Student’s Sentence-Level Revisions 52
Table 2: Summary of the Five Error Types Marked and the Percentage of Errors Successfully Corrected in Four Essay Revisions 56
Table 3: The Results of Successful Correction in Grammar Pretest 57
Table 4: Means and Standard Deviations of the Error Rates of the Four Essay Drafts 61
Table 5: Repeated Measure ANOVA of the Error Rates across the Four Essay Drafts 62
Table 6: Means and Standard Deviations of Four Essay Revisions Measuring the Successfully Corrected Ratio of Five Targeted Errors 64
Table 7: Repeated Measure ANOVA of Four Essay Revisions 65
Table 8: The Result of Successful Correction in Grammar Posttest 67
Table 9: Paired Samples t test of Grammar Pretest and Grammar Posttest 67
Table 10: The Results of Essay Pretest Revisions and Essay Posttest Revisions 69
Table 11: Paired Samples t test of Essay Pretest and Essay Posttest 69
Table 12: Errors Marked and Percentage of Errors Corrected by These 16 Students in Their Four Essay Drafts 73
Table 13: Breakdowns of Verb Errors Marked on Students’ Four Drafts 74
Table 14: Errors Successfully Corrected (%) in Essay Pretest and Essay Posttest 75
Table 15: Results of ESL Dictionary Entries Given to Students’ Essays 77
Table 16: Results of Concordance CF Given to Students’ Essays 77
Table 17: Successfully Corrected Ratios of DNA, Pronoun, and Verb Errors in Four Essay Revisions 93
Table 18: Successfully Corrected Ratios of Targeted Errors in Grammar Pretest and Grammar Posttest 93
Table 19: Successfully Corrected Ratios of Targeted Errors in Essay Pretest and Essay Posttest 93
List of Figures
Figure 1. A Snapshot of Student’s Error Log on eCampus 15
Figure 2. A Corpus KWIC Display of Interested from BNCWeb 16
Figure 3. A Snapshot of an Error Type Named ‘Two Verbs’ from the Researcher’s Grammar Web Pages 39
Figure 4. A Snapshot of the Table of Contents of Grammar Web Pages for Teacher’s Corrective Feedback 40
Figure 5. An Example of a Student’s Draft with Teacher’s Web-Based Corrective Feedback 41
Figure 6. Error Count of Five Targeted Error Types Marked in Four Essay Drafts 60
Figure 7. Snapshot of ‘appreciate’ entry from Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 78
Figure 8. A Snapshot of Pre-edited URL Link of ‘Spend’ from Compleat Lexical Tutor 98
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