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系統識別號 U0002-0103200817404300
中文論文名稱 文本式同步電腦媒介溝通與語言學習成效之研究
英文論文名稱 A STUDY OF SYNCHRONOUS TEXT-BASED COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING OUTCOMES
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 張玉英
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Ying Chang
學號 892010264
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2008-01-07
論文頁數 224頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳秀潔
指導教授-范瑞玲
委員-林茂松
委員-陳錦芬
委員-陳惠美
委員-杜德倫
中文關鍵字 溝通能力  同步電腦媒介溝通  面對面口語互動  互動理論  認知負荷理論  社會存在理論  語言學習策略  語言學習 
英文關鍵字 Communicative competence  synchronous computer-mediated communication  face-to-face interaction  interaction hypothesis  cognitive load theory  social presence  language learning strategies  language learning 
學科別分類
中文摘要 受到資訊技術發展的影響,虛擬環境下的互動、溝通儼然成為時下生活必需的產物,同時也被認為語言學習成功的一個決定性因素。本研究目的在探討文本式同步電腦媒介溝通能否具備有面對面的相互溝通同樣的功能,提供外語學習者溝通能力的練習,進一步的助推其在外語學習的成就。除此之外,本研究並探討文本式同步電腦媒介溝通如何影響外語學習成效。台北一所大學104位管理系學生參與此研究。參與者隨機分為52位「電腦媒介溝通」實驗組及52位「面對面口語對話」對照組。根據教科書的4個主題,實驗組及對照組的學生分別進行兩人一組的課後討論,為期4個月。經過英文程度及學習成果測驗,2份關於語言學習策略、電腦媒介溝通能力及態度問卷調查,本研究發現具有互動功能、較低的認知負荷量及社會存在感等特點的文本式同步電腦媒介溝通能夠提升學生的外語學習成效。閱讀成效明顯易見,而寫作成效需要較長的時間。本研究也發現語言學習策略中的認知、補償、情感策略為文本式同步電腦媒介溝通中間變項,進而影響非英語系國家學生的外語讀寫學習成效。同時,學生對於文本式同步電腦媒介溝通具有正面態度。因此,本研究之結果與建議將會對外語學習者在溝通式語言學習上提供一個新契機。
英文摘要 With the development of information technology, synchronous text-based computer-mediated communication (SCMC) has become a popular, promising medium of communication. However, it is seldom used in the domestic educational field in Taiwan even though SCMC can be an extra interface for learners to have best practice for communication. This study aimed to apply SCMC to the EFL instruction and examine whether SCMC served the same function as that of face-to-face interaction (F2F) to bring a positive effect to language learning. One hundred and four EFL non-English majors in a university in northern Taiwan participated in the study. The students were randomly divided into two groups: fifty-two SCMC and fifty-two F2F. According to the topics from their English textbooks, they respectively worked on dyad communication through SCMC and F2F outside the class time over four months. All the subjects took the simulated GEPT and filled out the first version of the questionnaire about language learning strategies before the experimental treatment. Right after the treatment, they took the language learning achievement test in the four skills and filled out the second version of the questionnaire. The results showed that SCMC had a positive effect on the EFL learners’ language learning outcomes presented in the four skills, especially in writing and reading. In addition, this study found that language learning strategies, induced by the medium of SCMC, partially acted as a mediator of SCMC to influence the EFL learners’ language learning outcomes. In the model of mediation, the learners’ reading performance was highly correlated to their use of compensative and affective strategies, whereas their writing outcomes were significantly correlated to the use of cognitive and compensative strategies. In light of the pedagogical and theoretical contributions, this study concluded that SCMC could be a good supplementary in EFL communicative instruction. Also, language learning strategies play a critical role in language learning, to which teachers can pay more attention when employing their instructional media.
論文目次 Acknowledgements...................................................................................................................i
Chinese Abstract.....................................................................................................................iii
English Abstract......................................................................................................................iv
Table of Contents....................................................................................................................vi
List of Tables...........................................................................................................................x
List of Figures.........................................................................................................................xi
List of Appendices..................................................................................................................xii
Chapter 1 Introduction..............................................................................................................1
1.1 Motivation and Background................................................................................................1
1.2 Statement of the Problem...................................................................................................4
1.3 The Purpose of the Study...................................................................................................8
1.4 Research Questions..........................................................................................................11
1.5 Significance of the Study....................................................................................................11
1.6 Definitions of Terms...........................................................................................................15
1.7 Organization of the Dissertation........................................................................................18
Chapter 2 Review of the Literature..........................................................................................20
2.1 Communicative Language Education................................................................................20
2.1.1 Communicative Language Approach..............................................................................21
2.1.2 Communicative Language Teaching in Taiwan...............................................................25
2.1.3 The Predicament of the Communicative Language Approach........................................27
2.2 Computer Technologies and Language Learning...............................................................32
2.2.1 Typology of Computer-Mediated Communication...........................................................34
2.2.2 Oral-like Features of SCMC............................................................................................37
2.2.3 SCMC Competence: An Indicator of Attitude..................................................................40
2.2.4 Related Studies on SCMC..............................................................................................44
2.2.5 The Probability of SCMC in Taiwan................................................................................46
2.3 SCMC Theory....................................................................................................................50
2.3.1 Social Cueing.................................................................................................................50
2.3.2 Cognitive Memory Load.................................................................................................53
2.3.3 Interaction Hypothesis...................................................................................................54
2.4 Language Learning Strategies..........................................................................................59
2.4.1 The Taxonomy of Language Learning Strategies..........................................................60
2.4.2 The Related studies on Language Learning Strategies.................................................67
2.5 Summary...........................................................................................................................72
Chapter 3 Methodology...........................................................................................................74
3.1 Subjects............................................................................................................................74
3.1.1 General Background......................................................................................................74
3.1.2 Grouping........................................................................................................................75
3.2 Materials...........................................................................................................................77
3.2.1 English Articles..............................................................................................................77
3.2.2 Achievement Tests.........................................................................................................79
3.2.3 Two Versions of the Questionnaire................................................................................82
3.3 Procedure.........................................................................................................................85
3.3.1 The Pilot Study..............................................................................................................85
3.3.2 The Main Study.............................................................................................................91
3.3.3 Data Collection and Statistical Analyses.......................................................................95
Chapter 4 Results..................................................................................................................98
4.1 Language Learning Outcomes........................................................................................98
4.1.1 The Results of the Final Achievement Test..................................................................99
4.1.2 The Results of the Interval Achievement Test.............................................................101
4.2 Language Learning Strategies.......................................................................................103
4.2.1 Language Learning Strategy Use between Groups....................................................103
4.2.2 Language Learning Strategy Use within Groups.........................................................107
4.3 The Mediating Effect.......................................................................................................111
4.3.1 The Relationship between SCMC and Language Learning Outcomes (Condition 1)..111
4.3.2 The Relationship between SCMC and Language Learning Strategies(Condition 2)...113
4.3.3 The Relationship between Language Learning Strategies and Language Learning Outcomes(Condition 3)…………..........................................................................................114
4.3.4 The Relationship among SCMC, Language Learning Strategies, and Language Learning Outcomes(Condition 4)........................................................................................................116
4.4 Attitude towards the Communicative Tasks....................................................................119
4.4.1 SCMC Competence.....................................................................................................119
4.4.2 Feedback on the SCMC Tasks....................................................................................122
4.4.3 Feedback on the F2F Tasks........................................................................................126
4.5 Summary........................................................................................................................128
Chapter 5 Discussions..........................................................................................................131
5.1 SCMC and Language Learning Outcomes.....................................................................131
5.2 SCMC and Language Learning Strategies.....................................................................137
5.3 SCMC, Language Learning Strategies, and Learning Outcomes..................................141
5.4 SCMC and Attitude........................................................................................................146
5.5 Summary.......................................................................................................................153
Chapter 6 Conclusions........................................................................................................156
6.1 Summary of the Study...................................................................................................156
6.2 Pedagogical Implications..............................................................................................159
6.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Study.............................................................161
References.........................................................................................................................164
Appendices........................................................................................................................191
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Internet Usage and Population Statistics 48
Table 2.2 The Index of the Level of Strategy Inventory for Language Learning 67
Table 3.1 The Results of the Simulated GEPT between the Two Classes 76
Table 3.2 The Scheme of the Main Study 94
Table 4.1 The Results of the Final Achievement Test between Groups 100
Table 4.2 The Results of the Interval Achievement Test between Groups 101
Table 4.3 Language Learning Strategy Use between Groups before the Treatment 104
Table 4.4 Language Learning Strategy Use between Groups after the Treatment 105
Table 4.5 The Variation of Language Learning Strategy Use within the SCMC Group 108
Table 4.6 The Variation of Language Learning Strategy Use with the F2F Group 110
Table 4.7 Regression Analyses: SCMC and Language Learning Outcomes 112
Table 4.8 Regression Analyses: SCMC and Language Learning Strategies 114
Table 4.9 Regression Analyses: Learning Strategies and Learning Outcomes 115
Table 4.10 Regression Analyses: SCMC, Language Learning Strategies, and Language Learning Outcomes 118
Table 4.11 The Experience of Using Computers and English 120
Table 4.12 The SCMC Competence Model 121
Table 4.13 Feedback on the SCMC Tasks 125
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 The relationship among SCMC, language learning strategies, and leaning outcomes 14
Figure 2.1 The digital opportunity index (DOI) in 2005/2006 (ITU, 2007) 49Figure 2.2 The definition of a mediation model 71
Figure 3.1 The reading materials (CDLP, 1995) 87
Figure 4.1 The results of the final achievement test between groups 100
Figure 4.2 The results of the interval achievement test between groups 102
Figure 4.3 Language learning strategy use between groups before the treatment 106
Figure 4.4 Language learning strategy use between groups after the treatment 107
Figure 4.5 The variation of language learning strategy use within the SCMC group 109
Figure 4.6 The variation of language learning strategy use within the F2F group 110
Figure 4.7 SCMC competence: the distribution of the components 122


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